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Welcome! West Bengal is located in the Northeastern part of the country. It is bounded on its north by Bhutan and the state of Sikkim, on its east by Bangladesh, on its northeast by the state of Assam. , on its south by the Bay of Bengal, on its southwest by the state of Odisha, on its northwest by Nepal, and on its west by the state of Bihar. The alluvial plain in the south is watered by the legendary River Hooghly and its tributaries - Mayurakshi, Damodar, Kangsabati and the Rupnarayan. The Himalayan north, comprising the districts of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar are watered by the swift flowing rivers Tista, Torsa, Jaldhaka and Ranjit. Variations in altitude result in diversity in the nature and climate of West Bengal. From the northern highlands at the feet of the Himalayas to the tropical forests of Sunderbans, West Bengal is a land of myriad beauty, each region different from the other. ============================================================== Facts on West Bengal ============================================================== Official Website: www.westbengal.gov.in Location: Northern part of India Sikkim and Bhutan at the north Assam and Bangladesh on the east Bay of Bengal on the south Orissa, Bihar and Nepal on the west. Latitude: Between 27°13'15" and 21°25'24" north Longitude: Between 85°48'20" and 89°53'04" east Date of Formation: 26. Jan. 1950 Area: 88,752 sq km Density: 1,029/Km2 Population (2011): 91,276,115 Males Population (2011): 46,809,027 Females Population (2011): 44,467,088 Climate: Summer - Hot, Winter - Cold Max Temperature: 35°C Min Temperature: 10°C Average Annual Rainfall: 210cms No. of District: 20 Capital: Kolkata Rivers: Hooghly, Teesta, Jaldhaka, Rupnarayan,Torsa, Subarnarekha Major crops: Rice, maize, oil seeds, sugarcane Forests & National Park and wildlife sanctuaries: Gorumara NP, Sundarbans NP, Ballavpur WS, Chapramari WS Sunderbans Tiger Reserve, Jaldapara WS Languages: Bengali, Hindi, English, Nepali,Urdu Neighbours State: Assam, Sikkim, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha State Animal: Fishing cat State Bird: White-throated Kingfisher State Tree: Devil Tree or chatian State Flower: Night-flowering Jasmine(Shephali) Literacy Rate (2011): 86.43% Females per 1000 males: 947 Assembly constituency: 294 Parliamentary constituency: 42 Languages: Bengali, Hindi, English Religion: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism Best Time to Visit: October to March Clothing: Summer - Light Cottons, Winter - Woolens Tourist attractions: Victoria Memorial, Vidyasagar Setu, Shantiniketan, Darjeeling Arts and crafts: Terracotta Bankura horses; Kalighat style of painting; hand-woven Baluchari Silk textiles Festivals: Durga Puja, Rabindra Jayanti Major dance and music forms: Jatra theatre; Baul; Rabindrasangeet Net State Domestic Product (2011) 48,536 Factoids: Bengali literature developed early thanks to the cultural awakening brought about by the Brahmo Samaj.Rabindranath Tagore, the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, was from Bengal. =============================================================== West Bengal located in eastern India is the country's fourth most populous state. With Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) as its capital, West Bengal has two very distinct natural regions; the Gangetic plains in the north and the Himalayas in the north. West Bengal is famous for its cultural heritage and for being home to India's Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore and Raja Ram Mohan Roy, regarded by many as the Father of the Bengal Renaissance Movement. The population of West Bengal is 91,347,736 (2011 census) and is spread over an area of 88,752 km sq. Districts and Administration in West Bengal: West Bengal is divided into 19 districts and each district is governed by a district collector or a district magistrate, appointed by the Indian Administrative Service or the West Bengal Civil Services. Each district is further divided into sub divisions, governed by a sub divisional magistrate and then into blocks. Blocks comprise of panchayats and town municipalities. =============================================================================== List of Districts in West Bengal =============================================================================== S District Headquarters Population Sex Ratio Avg. No. (Census 2011) (per 1000) Lit. ===== =========== ============= ============ ======== ======= 1 Bankura Bankura 3,596,674 957 70.26% 2 Bardhaman Bardhaman 7,717,563 945 76.21% 3 Birbhum Suri 3,502,404 956 70.68% 4 Cooch Behar Cooch Behar 2,819,086 942 74.78% 5 Dakshin Dinajpur Balurghat 1,676,276 956 72.82% 6 Darjeeling Darjeeling 1,846,823 970 79.56% 7 Hooghly Hugli-Chuchura 5,519,145 961 81.80% 8 Howrah Howrah 4,850,029 939 83.31% 9 Jalpaiguri Jalpaiguri 3,872,846 953 73.25% 10 Kolkata Kolkata 4,496,694 908 86.31% 11 Maldah English Bazar 3,988,845 944 61.73% 12 Murshidabad Baharampur 7,103,807 958 66.59% 13 Nadia Krishnanagar 5,167,600 947 74.97% 14 North 24 Parganas Barasat 10,009,781 955 84.06% 15 Paschim Medinipur Midnapore 5,913,457 966 78.00% 16 Purba Medinipur Tamluk 5,095,875 938 87.02% 17 Puruliya Purulia 2,930,115 957 64.48% 18 South 24 Parganas Alipore 8,161,961 956 77.51% 19 Uttar Dinajpur Raiganj 3,007,134 939 59.07% ================================================================================ West Bengal Facts ------------------ Although in area, West Bengal ranks as one of the smaller states of India, it is one of the largest in population. The capital is Kolkata, India's third largest metropolitan city; other important cities and towns are Howrah, Asansol, Durgapur and Siliguri, Darjeeling, Kharagpur and Haldia. West Bengal has a single-chamber legislative assembly with 295 seats. The state sends 58 members to the Indian Parliament: 16 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and 42 to the Lok Sabha (Lower House). Local government is based on 20 administrative districts. West Bengal History ------------------- Bengal finds a coveted place even in pre-historic times. At the time of Alexander's invasion, a powerful kingdom called Gangaridai ruled over Bengal. Ascendancy of the Guptas and the Mauryas had somewhat little effect on Bengal. Later Sasanka became the king of Bengal and is said to have played an important role in the early half of the seventh century. He was succeeded by Gopala who founded the Pala dynasty which ruled for centuries and had created a huge empire. The Palas were followed by the Sena dynasty which was ended by Muslim rulers from Delhi. Bengal was ruled by various Muslim rulers and governors till the Mughal period in sixteenth century. Districts of West Bengal ------------------------ There are 19 districts in the state and they are as follows: Darjeeling, Cooch Behar, Malda, Jalpaiguri, South Dinajpur (Dakshin Dinajpur), North Dinajpur (Uttar Dinajpur), Bardhaman, Bankura, East Midnapore (Purba Medinipur), Birbhum, Purulia, Hooghly, Howrah, West Midnapore (Paschim Medinipur), Murshidabad, Kolkata, North 24 Parganas (Uttar 24 Parganas), Nadia, and South 24 Parganas (Dakshin 24 Parganas). Divisions of West Bengal ----------------------- There are three divisions in the state and they are the Jalpaiguri division, Burdwan division, and Presidency division. Area of West Bengal ------------------- The state covers a total area of 34,267.3 sq miles or 88,752 km2. Population of West Bengal ----------------------- According to the census performed in 2011, the population of the state is 91,347,736. Tourist Attractions in West Bengal -------------------------------- The state is known all over the globe for the Sunderbans. It has nineteen districts and the major cities are Kolkata, Siliguri, Burdwan, Durgapur, Kharagpur, Darjeeling and Malda. The state is home to two very big natural zones and they are the sub-Himalayan and Himalayan region to the north and the Gangetic Plain to the south. Neighboring states and countries ------------------------------- The neighboring states are Jharkhand , Odisha , Sikkim , bihar , and Assam. The state shares its international boundaries with Bhutan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. Economy -------- The principal occupation of the people of the state is farming. It makes the sixth highest contribution to the Gross Domestic Product of the country. Education in West Bengal ----------------------- The state is a pioneer in bringing modern education in India. Given below are the names of the famous educational institutes in the state: Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Aliah University, Jadavpur University, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Haringhata, Presidency University, Kolkata, Netaji Subhas Open University, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Rabindra Bharati University, University of Burdwan, University of Calcutta, Sidho Kanho Birsha University, University of Kalyani, University of North Bengal, University of Gour Banga, Vidyasagar University, Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, West Bengal State University, Visva-Bharati University, West Bengal University of Health Sciences, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences and West Bengal University of Technology. Government of West Bengal -------------------------- At present, the Governor of the state is Mr. Keshari Nath Tripathi. He is appointed by the President of India for a term of five years and acts as the constitutional head of the state. The Chief Minister of West Bengal is Smt. Mamata Banerjee who represents the Trinamool Congress party. The Legislative Assembly or Vidhan Sabha of the state is unicameral in nature and contains 295 seats. Geography of West Bengal ------------------------ The state has diverse geographical features which include towering summits of the Himalayan Mountain Range, flat terrain, rivers, and sea. The state shares its boundaries with the Himalayas in the north and the Bay of Bengal to the south. To the west, it is bordered by the states of Jharkhand and Bihar. To the east, it is edged by Bangladesh. To the northeast, it is bordered by Assam, Sikkim and Bhutan. The territory of Nepal lies to the northwest. The state of Orissa is situated to the southwest of the state. Landforms --------- The state is made up of the following varieties of landforms: Darjeeling Himalayan hill region Terai region North Bengal plains Rarh region Coastal plain Sunderbans Western plateau and high lands Ganges delta Agro-climatic regions The state can be divided into the following agro-climatic regions: ------------------------------------------------------------------ The Teesta and Terai alluvial areas of North Bengal The mountainous areas in the north The shoreline alluvial areas in the south The red, laterectic, and severely rolling areas to the west The Vindhya alluvial area in the middle The Gangetic alluvial area in the west ------------------------------------------------------------------ ================================= West Bengal emergency numbers ================================= The West Bengal emergency numbers consists of the numbers of the police department, police stations, hospitals, blood banks, railway station, airport and other essential parts of the state. The emergency numbers of the state of West Bengal is of great assistance to the citizens. The state has many centers, which provide round the clock ambulance service for the patients. The hospitals of the state also have their own ambulance. Hospitals are scattered all over the state of West Bengal . The government has set up hospitals even in remote areas with free bed facilities to ensure proper treatment of all the patients in the state. To aid the medical sector of the society, there are many 24-hours chemists' shops in the state of West Bengal that leaves its center open on all days of the week and throughout the day. The police of West Bengal state deputed in the police stations in various parts of the state maintain the law and order and assure the citizens a secure and well-protected life. The police are of great assistance to the citizens. The state has fire-extinguishing facilities in the cities and towns. The fire brigade arrives immediately at the beckoning of the needy. The state also provides telephonic assistance in the railway stations and airports. Inquiry outlets on the scheduled flights and trains are available on the telephone. West Bengal emergency numbers assist the citizens and the traveler of the state of West Bengal at all events and situations of life. Police Stations --------------- West Bengal Police Stations are noted for their prompt and efficient services. The police force of the state of West Bengal is known as West Bengal Police. There are various police stations spread across the state under this department of the West Bengal Government. West Bengal Police is divided into many zones and districts. While each zone is headed by an Inspector General of Police, a Superintendent of Police is the head of each police district. Presently there are three police zones in the state. Namely they are the North Bengal zone, Western zone and the South Bengal zone. There are five or six districts under each such zone. Each police station of West Bengal is under one such district. The head of a police station is either an Inspector or a Sub- inspector. The main responsibility of maintaining peace and order in a specific area is supposed to be shouldered by the police stations of these areas. Police Control Room - 100 Lalbazar Control Room - 22350230, 22155000-01 West Bengal Police - 22215415, 22215486 Hospitals and Ambulances ----------------------- West Bengal ambulance services are present on all days of the calendar year at all hours. The government and private hospitals and nursing homes have ambulances at their disposal to carry patients. The cities of West Bengal have many hospitals that are equipped with emergency ambulance facilities. There are private offices that cater to the needs of the patients. The ambulances are equipped with medical instruments that are used in the case of an emergence. The ambulances of West Bengal also have trained personnels who can administer the patient while commuting the patient to the hospital. Other than the hospitals, some of the private agencies also provide ambulance services. 24 hours telephonic services help the agencies to send the ambulance to the required destinations. The West Bengal ambulances are quick and agile in their services and respond as soon as they receive a call without wasting time. The list below provides the contact addresses of some of the ambulance centers in the city of Kolkata: St. Johns Ambulance (H.Q.) - 22485277 Calcutta Municipal Corporation (Ambulance)- 22392232, 22392233 Belle View Nursing Home - 22477473, 22472321 Kothari Medical Centre & Research Institute - 24567050, 24792561 Calcutta Hospital and Medical Research - 24567700, 24791805 S.S.K.M. Hospital (P.G.) - 22236026, 22236242 Calcutta Medical College - 22414901, 22414904 B.M.Birla Heart Research Centre - 24567001, 24567005 R.K. Kar Medical College & Hospital - 25557676, 25557656 N.R.S. Medical College and Hospital - 22443212, 22443217 Peerless Hospital - 24622394, 24622462 Woodland - 24567079, 24567076 R.K.M. Seva Pratisthan (Sishu Mangal) - 24753636, 24753638 West Bengal Hotels and Guest House State Government Guest House (Kyd.Street) - 22297463 State Government Circuit House (Hugeford St.) - 22405242 Great Eastern Hotel - 22482311 Oberoi Grand - 22492323 Taj Bengal - 22233939 Hotel Hindustan International - 22472394 Airport Ashoka - 25519111 Kenilworth Hotel - 22823403 Park hotel - 22493121 Peerless Inn - 22280301 Astor Hotel - 22829950 Fairlawn Hotel - 22451510 Hotel Rut Deen - 22476911 Lytton Hotel - 22491881 Hotel Shalimar - 22285030 Hotel Ananda Bhawan - 22374014 Hotel Saptarshi - 24405420 West Bengal Airport -------------------- The most important West Bengal airport is located in Dum Dum, Kolkata. This is the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport. Other airports of West Bengal are located in Bagdogra, Panagarh, Malda, Kalaikunda, Coochbehar, Barrackpur and Balurghat. These airports are meant only for domestic flights. The Dum Dum Airport is one of the busiest airports of the country. This International Airport in Kolkata links the state of West Bengal to the rest of the world. The NSC Bose Airport is also well connected to the other parts of the country by regular flights. The contact numbers of the West Bengal Airport are provided below: ------------------------------------------------------------------- Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, Dum Dum 033-2511-6030 033-2511-9177 033-2511-6752 033-2511-9416 033-2511-9291 033-2511-9266 033-2511-9172 033-2511-8318 033-2511-9547 033-2511-9366 033-2511-8318 033-2511-8980 West Bengal Electricity ----------------------- West Bengal Electricity is supplied mainly by the West Bengal State Electricity Board (WBSEB). Recently the government of West Bengal has restructured and divide this department into West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Company Limited (WBSEDCL) and West Bengal State Electricity Transmission Company Limited(WBSETCL). Electricity supply in West Bengal is controlled and taken care of by the West Bengal Electricity Regulatory Commission. This commission is responsible for determining the tariff of electricity and regulating its purchase in the state. In certain areas of the city of Kolkata electricity is also supplied by the CESC Limited. They started distributing power in the city of Kolkata from the year 1899. For queries related to West Bengal Electricity you may dial the telephone numbers provided in the list below West Bengal State Electricity Board (Bidyut Bhawan) Phone- 2359-1915, 2337-1150 CESC Customer Service Phone- 2478-4302/4888/4889 Complaints CESC - North Phone- 2237-3161/64 Complaints CESC - South Phone- 2466-4643/3161/62 Complaints CESC - Howrah Phone- 2665-1143 Behala Emergency Depot Phone- 2478-1673 Kalighat Emergency Depot Phone- 2455-5609 West Bengal Post Office ----------------------- The main West Bengal Post Office is located in the city of Kolkata. It is known as the General Post Office, Kolkata. This is located in the BBD Bag area of the city. Its address is 79B Dalhousie Square, Kolkata- 700001. The building is considered to be one of the major landmarks of the city. There are post offices in different localities that function under the GPO of Kolkata. The building of this GPO is noted for its architectural beauty. There is a postal museum attached to this museum. It was built in the year 1884. The postal service department of West Bengal is very dependable. The post offices functioning under it are always ready to help you. Here are the telephone numbers of of this West Bengal Post Office: 033-2210-7190 033-2210-5899 033-2210-5601 West Bengal Railway Station ---------------------------- The most important West Bengal Railway Station is located in Howrah. This railway station is connected to the city of Kolkata by the Howrah Bridge. This is also one of the most important railway junctions of India. This railway station connects the city of Kolkata and Howrah to almost all the parts of the country. Other parts of the state are well connected to Howrah Station by road as well as railways. The International Airport in Kolkata is also connected to this railway station of West Bengal by a fantastic network of roads. Twenty-four hour cab services are available from here to help you to reach any part of the city of Kolkata from here. The contact numbers of the West Bengal Railway Station are provided below ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Howrah Station 2660-2581/7412/3542 24 Hours Inquiry 131 Reservation Status 135, 2220-3500 Recorded Information 2220-3535 New Howrah Station 2660-2217 West Bengal Water supply ------------------------- West Bengal Water supply is generally good. The various rivers and lakes in the state makes the availability of water for irrigation easier. River Ganges is the main source of water in the rural parts of Bengal. There are also use of tube wells common to the state. In the urban parts of the state where water is required mainly for domestic and industrial use the water supply is taken care of by the municipal corporations of the particular areas. They take care of regular supply of water to all the buildings in the locality. There are certain other agencies where the supply of drinking water in the state is taken care of. For problems related to West Bengal Water you can contact Sree Kashi Viswanath Seva Samity- 033- 2239- 4113 033- 2239- 3759 Some other important phone numbers are stated below. West Bengal State Transport Corporation - 24116382, 24116388 New Secretariat - 22486271 Writers Building - 22355601, 22353371 Fire - 101, 22440101, 22441063 History of West Bengal ---------------------- West Bengal, the gateway to eastern India is shrouded in history that dates back to antiquity. There are historic references to the state that are found in the Vedic annals as well as the chronicles of the Murayan, Gupta and Mughal eras and the musty archives of the Pala and Sena dynasties. The first traces of West Bengal's history are recorded to belong to the Vedic era when the state was inhabited by myriads of people of varying origin and ethnicity. The state was ruled by several chieftains during the epic Mahabharata period and was inhabited by the Aryans in the post-Vedic period that soon followed. West Bengal witnessed the flourishing prosperity of the Mauryan Empire as well as the efflorescence of the Gupta Golden Age. Among the various dynasties that established control over West Bengal, the Palas, Pundras and the Senas deserve special mention. The voluminous evidence of history cites references to the glorious Pala rule that spanned nearly 400 years. West Bengal's history records that the state suffered the ravages of the Islamic anarchy, which was soon followed by the cultural extravaganzas of the Mughal Empire. Under the Mughal rule, West Bengal became a commercial hub where industry and trade thrived. However the downfall of the Mughal Empire led to the oppressive British Rule when India became an established trade colony of the East India Company. 3rd century the Mauryan and the Guptas established their rule. The Palas established their strong rule from about 800AD till the 11th century after which the Senas ruled. The economy, arts and culture of this region developed under the rule of the Hindu dynasties. In the beginning of the 13th century Bengal became a part of the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughals. The influence of the Muslims led to conversions besides development of art and culture and cottage industries that produced items such as Muslin which were in great demand around the world. The proximity to the sea also resulted in the influence with the foreigners -- the Portuguese in the early 16th century, the Dutch in about 1632, the French influence between 1673-1676, the Danish in 1676 and British in 1690. The increased influence of the British resulted in conflicts with the Nawab. The diplomatic efforts with a series of conspiracies resulted in the ultimate capture of power in Bengal by the British. The battle of Plassey (1757) and the battle of Buxar (1764) sealed the fate of the Mughal rule. The British later brought forth the Dual system of administration In 1905 the English partitioned Bengal on the basis of religion. Calcutta remained the Capital of the British empire in India till 1911. After that the capital was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi. In 1947 when India became independent Bengal was partitioned between India and Pakistan. India's share came to be known as West Bengal and Pakistan's share was called East Pakistan. Later, the state of Cooch Behar, French enclave of Chandranagore and some parts of Bihar were added to West Bengal. Bengal represents the land that possess a distinct culture with its indigenous art and crafts and make it an important part of the Indian Union. West Bengal was formerly known as Vanga and was spread over a vast area. Ruled by several dynasties from ancient times, the actual history of this region is, however, available from the Gupta period. The prosperity and the importance of the state increased largely when the British East India Company took over the place. It was a widespread Bengal province until under the terms of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the province of Bengal ceased to exist. The Muslim-dominated districts, namely, Chittagong, Dacca and part of Presidency and Rajshahi division went to the present-day Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal came into existence in 1947. The district of Cooch Behar was merged with the state on January 1, 1950. The former Chandernogor came within the state on October 2, 1954 and the state got its present political boundary when, according to the States Reorganization Act, part of the state of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. The name of Bengal, or Bangla, is derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga, or Banga. References to it occur in early Sanskrit literature, but its early history is obscure until the 3rd century BC, when it formed part of the extensive Mauryan empire inherited by Asoka. With the decline of Mauryan power, anarchy once more supervened The history of Bengal (including Bangladesh and West Bengal) dates back four millennia. To some extent, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers separated it from the mainland of India, though at times, Bengal has played an important role in Indian history. Remnants of Copper Age settlements in the Bengal region date back 4,000 years, when the region was settled by Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austro-Asiatic peoples. After the arrival of Indo-Aryans, the kingdoms of Anga, Vanga and Magadha were formed by the 10th century BC, located in and around the Bengal region. The Anga, Vanga and Magadha kingdoms are first described in the Atharvaveda around 1000 BC. From the 6th century BC, most of Bengal was a part of the powerful kingdom of Magadha, which was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of ancient India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. It was also one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha, having risen to power during the reigns of Bimbisara (c. 544-491 BC) and his son Ajatashatru (c. 491-460 BC). Magadha spanned to include most of Bihar and Bengal. Magadha formed one of the sixteen Maha Janapadas (Sanskrit, "great country"). The Magadha empire included republican communities such as Rajakumara. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Their administrations were divided into executive, judicial, and military functions. Bimbisara was friendly to both Jainism and Buddhism and suspended tolls at the river ferries for all ascetics after the Buddha was once stopped at the Ganges River for lack of money. In 326 BC, the army of Alexander the Great approached the boundaries of the Nanda Empire of Magadha. The army, exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing a larger Indian army at the Ganges River, mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas) and refused to march further East. Alexander, after the meeting with his officer, Coenus, was convinced that it was better to return. Magadha was the seat of the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya, which extended over nearly all of South Asia and parts of Persia and Afghanistan under Ashoka the Great; and, later, of the powerful Gupta Empire, which extended over the northern Indian subcontinent and parts of Persia and Afghanistan. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land named Gangaridai by the Greeks around 100 BC. The word is speculated to have come from Gangahrd (Land with the Ganges in its heart) and believed to be referring to an area in Bengal. For example, Diodorus Siculus (c. 90-30 BC) states that, "...Gandaridai, a nation which possesses the greatest number of elephants and the largest in size." This is presently known as 'Gangaridi' civilization and encompasses a period presumably from 400 BC to 100 AD. Some recent excavations in South 24 Parganas in West Bengal reveal small pearls of garnet, opal, quartz etc, which helped to detect the time and life-style of the people of this ancient civilization. There are engravings such as couple, snake, swastika, plough, trident, betel-leaf etc. found on these pearls. British -------- West Bengal, the Gateway to eastern India boasts of a cultural legacy and glorious history. The state was a former kingdom of several powerful rulers and part of the splendid Mughal culture. Besides, the state had also been an established colony of several foreign nations and subjugated to the oppressive British rule. The East India Company arrived in India to set up a trading center in a country noted for its business potential. The first notable footprint of the British in West Bengal was when Job Charnock, an agent form the East India Company found the site formed by the three large villages of Sutanuti, Gobindpur and Kolikata suiltable for the establishment of a trade center. The agglomeration of these three villages culminated in what is known as modern day Kolkata, the urban metropolis that is the present capital of West Bengal. The efficacy of the East India Company's rule in Bengal is questionable considering the number of deaths that occurred following the cataclysmic famine of 1770. The control of Bengal was passed on to the hands of British crown from that of the East India Company after the disaster following the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, a rather unfortunate affair that sprung up at a Sepoy Mangal Pande's initiative in Bengal's Barrackpore. Dutch ---- age-old history. The state, in its former days of glory formed a significant part of the empire of several powerful dynasties. The state was also a colony of several foreign traders that included the Dutch, French, Portuguese and the British. The Dutch traders arrived in the Indian subcontinent and established their colony in the country's premises. India, or according to the Dutch colloquial pronunciation India, with its potential for flourishing trade was their jewel in the crown. They set up their capital in the picturesque land of the sun, sea and the sand, Cochin, sited on the Malabar Coast. French ------ The state of West Bengal, a center for east India's trade, commerce, culture and education, has a past that goes way back into the pages of history. Ruled by several powerful dynasties, the state was also an established colony of the French, British, Dutch and Portuguese traders. The French like the other foreigners arrived in India to further their commercial interests and set up their industrial enterprises in the bustling lands of Bengal. In the year 1673, the French established their colony at Chandernagore or as the current name goes Chandannagar, having sought permission from Nawab Shaista Khan, the erstwhile Mughal governor of Bengal. Those were the French days of glory when all they touched turned to gold. In 1816, after the remarkable French victory against the renowned Napoleon Bonaparte, the five former colonies of Chandranagore, Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam and the loges at Machilipattnam, Kozhikode and Surat were restored to France. Independence ---------- West Bengal, an epicenter of Bengali culture is shrouded in history that dates back to the antiquarian Vedic era. The state's historic saga records the triumphs and tribulations of the powerful monarchs, oppressive days as a British colony as well as the pivotal role it played in India's tumultuous war for independence. The Bengali youths and revolutionaries were actively involved in India's freedom movement. Guided by the able leadership of visionaries of the likes of Chittranjan Das, S. N. Bannerjee, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Prafulla Chaki, Khudiram Bose and Rashbehari Bose, the people of Bengal were stirred up in patriotic fervor and were unified in the cause of liberating their country from the tyrannical British Raj. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose played a vital role in challenging the British authority. He formed the Indian National Army and established a liaison with the axis powers lead by Adolph Hitler to free India. Muslim leaders like A. K. Fazlul Huq and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy were noted for their active participation in liberating India. Mauryan Empire -------------- West Bengal, a treasure trove of cultural potpourri unravels a mind-blowing historical chronicle. The state was a significant part of the empire of several eminent emperors of widespread territories. The renowned land of Magadha is one such kingdom in Bengal that was ruled by the monarchs of the Mauryan Empire. The obscure haze of ancient Indian history starts to fade from the 3rd century B.C. when we find records of the glorious Mauryan Empire ruled by the likes of legendary monarchs like Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka. From around 6th century B.C., a large portion of Bengal was a part of the Magadha kingdom. Magadha was also one of the 16 Maha Janapadas that gained prominence as an established center of Buddhist learning and culture. Mughals ------- West Bengal, the gateway to eastern India flaunts a rich and varied cultural history that dates back to antiquity. Prior to the oppressive British Rule, the state was ruled by numerous dynasties that ranged from the Palas, Senas, Pundras, the emperors of the Delhi Sultanate as well as the Mughals. It was under the Mughals that Bengal became a recognized commercial hub in the country. The Muslims established control of the domicile of Bengal during early 13th century. Three centuries down the line, the disorderly lawlessness that prevailed in the state during the anarchic Muslim rule gave way to the flourishing Mughal rule. The Muslim rulers established strong trading ties with the rest of the country as well as abroad and under their reign internal trade and commerce as well as maritime trade flourished in the state. Palas ------ Chronicles of history indicate that the state of West Bengal flourished under the glorious rule under the monarchs of the Pala, Pundra and Sena dynasty. The Pala rulers played a momentous role in shaping history. The 400-year old Pala rule that continued almost up to 800.A.D. saw West Bengal as an established center of flourishing internal as well as maritime trade. Their trade links extended up to Taxila, Cambodia, Burma, Sri Lanka, the Deccan and the Persian Gulf. The Pala dynasty's claim to fame lies in hosting the first ever-democratic election in South Asia, when the first Buddhist Pala potentate, Gopala I was elected as monarch of Bengal. After Gopala's successful tenure, Dharmapala, the dynasty's most dominant rule came to power and ruled his territory from 775 to 810A.D. Under his successor Devapala's reign, the Pala empire's territorial boundaries spanned across the Indian subcontinent to as far as Afghanistan. The strength and power of the Pala Empire started declining during Narayanapala's rule. This was however temporarily revived under Mahipala I's effective rule. Portuguese ----------- The state of West Bengal opens up a Pandora's Box of cultural delights that testify the state's rich history. The state, which was once ruled, by the Palas, Pundras, Senas as well as the Mughals was also a Portuguese colony. The foreign traders who arrived in Bengal found its location conducive to trade and commerce and thus tried to establish control over the province. Hugli City lying on the western banks of the Hugli River was launched by the Portuguese traders way back in the 16th century. Before the Portuguese settlement came up here Hugli was a picturesque and bucolic village on the right banks of the mighty Bhagirathi River. It was here that the Portuguese ships and vessels would conduct their maritime trade and sell Hijli salt. Post Independence ----------------- West Bengal, located in eastern India, played an instrumental role in India's tumultuous struggle for freedom. The state that witnessed the triumphs and tribulations of ancient monarchs also has a saga of tragic suffering caused by its heart wrenching partition. Post Independence however the state has come a long way. The post independence days in Bengal were in no way a smooth sailing affair for the state. However, the people of Bengal, known to endure struggle and having earned the much-desired freedom fought back zealously to ensure the state's future progress. Post Independence, the jute mills of Calcutta, a major source of revenue and employment had to bear the brunt of the partition of Bengal. The raw materials required to facilitate work in the mills were now left in the other side of the newly created boundary and thus industrial growth was severely hindered. Post Vedic Period ----------------- West Bengal's pride lies in its rich cultural legacy that testifies the state's age-old history. The annals of history contain evidences that date as far back as the Vedic era. It is generally supposed that the post Vedic period comment from the time when the Aryans settled on Bengal's terrains. The chronicles of the Greek foreign travelers of 400 BC to 100 AD refer to an area known as Gangaridai, which has been supposed to be none other than the present Bengal. The etymological significance of Gangahrd is a Land with the Ganges in its heart. Thus according to mythology, Gangaridai is supposed to be the inception point of the world. The post Vedic period gradually culminated in the glorious rule of the Pala and the Sena rulers under whose rule trade, commerce, religion and culture flourished in Bengal. Ancient Buddhist texts refer to the 16 Maha Janapadas that were the seat of Buddhist religion and culture. Pundras ------- The Pundra dynasty that ruled the territories of West Bengal and Bangladesh in the ancient times is shrouded in age-old history and mythology. Pundra, also recognized as Paundra or Paundraya is one of the renowned empires that established control over eastern India. Pundra dynasty is claimed to be the genesis of several renowned warrior tribes like the Pundir Rajputs of Telangana. According to historical records, the earlier monarchs of the Vanga, Anga, Pundra, Kalinga and Suhma dynasty shared a common lineage. Supposedly strong fraternal ties linked the five rulers of these kingdoms, being the adopted sons of emperor Vali. Pundra, referred to as a realm of Bharata Varsha or India belonged to the warrior Kshatriya tribes. The Pundra dynasty did not conform to the Vedic culture of the period. One of the legendary potentate's of the Pundra dynasty is Paundraka Vasudeva. His name goes down the pages of history for his great folly in imitating Lord Krishna and dressing up like him, which led to his eventual death. Another ruler, Vanga Pundra is noted for his immense courage and valor. Senas ----- West Bengal, a state is eastern India that is renowned for its quintessential Bengali culture and cuisine has plenty to be spoken of. The province was once upon a time ruled by several ancient dynasties of which the Senas or the Sens deserves special mention. The state's former history that recount the triumphs of a bygone era enrich the minds of the erudite.The rulers of the Sena dynasty spearheaded the administration of Bengal from 1097 to1225.A.D. The Sena rulers were a worthy successor of the Palas and their rule was a landmark of Bengal's history. Vijayasena who founded the Sena dynasty is credited with the foresight and acumen of seizing the opportunity that presented itself during the revolt of the Samantachakra in Mahipala IIs reign. Gradually, the Senas became dominant in the Western fringes of Bengal and set up their independent kingdom during Madanapala's tenure. The talking point of the Sena rule was that for the first time in history, a single emperor ruled Bengal in its entirety. The Sena rulers originally hailed from Karnataka and were a mixed breed of Brahmanas and Kshtriyas, popularly known as the Brahma-Ksatriyas. West Bengal, the cultural hot seat of India that basks in the glory of the splendid Bengali culture is noted for its age-old history. The history of this ancient land dates as far back as the Vedic age and readers find ample mention of the triumphs and tribulations of its former monarchs in the chronicles of history. There are not too many traces of the Vedic era in West Bengal save some scanty literary records and numismatic evidences and relics of pottery. West Bengal was known as Vanga during the bygone eons of the venerable Vedas. Etymological studies suggest that the term Bengal, locally known, as Bangla owes its connotation to the name of a certain Dravidian tribe "Banga". The hospitable state was inhabited by a multitude of people of mixed ethnicity and varying roots, which was responsible for the cultural diversity. West Bengal Geography --------------------- The Geography of West Bengal is varied. The state is situated in the Eastern part of India; on its east lies Bangladesh. Sikkim and Bhutan lie on the north of West Bengal. The state of Assam is situated on the northeast of West Bengal. Bihar and Jharkhand are situated on the western side of the state. The geographical location of the state is 23 degree North latitude and 88 degree East longitude. The total area of West Bengal is 88,752 sq km. According to the census of 2011, the state has a population of 9,12,76,115. The population density of West Bengal per square kilometer is 1029. Out of the total population of the state, the ratio between males and females is 947. The population of West Bengal is predominated by the Bengali population. But immigration from different states of India has enriched the population diversity of West Bengal. The Geography of West Bengal is varied. The state of West Bengal is situated in the eastern part of India. On the east lies Bangladesh. Sikkim and Bhutan lie on the north of West Bengal. The state of Assam is situated on the north east of West Bengal. Bihar and Jharkhand is situated on the western side of the state. The geographical location of the state is 23 degree North latitude and 88 degree East longitude. The total area of West Bengal is 88,752 sq km. According to the census of 2001, the state has a population of 8,02,21,171. The population density of West Bengal per square kilometer is 904. Out of the total population of the state, the ratio between males and females is 934. The population of West Bengal is predominated by the Bengali population. But immigration from different states of India has enriched the population diversity of West Bengal. The topography of the state also varies from region to region. The northern part of West Bengal touches the Himalayan range. The topography of West Bengal alters as the Indo-Gangetic plain begins. The Gangetic plain is rich in alluvial soil and thus is very fertile. This kind of soil is suitable for agriculture. Further south, the deltaic plain or the Sunderban region is a very important spot for tourism in West Bengal. The climate of West Bengal is full of variation. The state experiences a tropical type of climate. The seasons in West Bengal can be broadly categorized into summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons. Geography of West Bengal depends on ----------------------------------- Area ----- The area of West Bengal touches the Himalayan range in the north and Bay of Bengal in the south. The capital of the state is the city of Kolkata. West Bengal is a state in India where the tourists keep coming back to devour the rustic feel of nature. The total area of the state is 88,752 sq km. According to the census of 2001, the state has a population of 8,02,21,171. The state of West Bengal is situated in the eastern part of India. On the east lies Bangladesh. Sikkim and Bhutan lie on the north of West Bengal. The state of Assam is situated on the north east of West Bengal. The geographical location of the state is 23-degree North latitude and 88 degree East longitude. The area of West Bengal can be divided into broad physiographic divisions. The foothills of the Himalaya are known as the Terai region. This area is famous for the tea plantation. Then onwards, starts the plain land formed by river Ganga. The main distributary of Ganga is the Hoogly River that flows over the area of Kolkata. The Sunderbans or the delta region is an important spot for tourism in West Bengal. The urban and the rural population form a part of the total area of West Bengal. According to the census, 70% of the total population resides in the rural areas. The people occupying the area of the state are mainly Bengali. But there is a marked heterogeneity in the population of West Bengal. Biodiversity ------------ The term biodiversity of a place signifies the variety of living organisms. It also includes the variety of species of the plant and animal kingdom. The ecosystem is also involved with the biodiversity of nature. The need for conservation of the natural resources, the ecosystem is strongly felt. Thus The West Bengal Biodiversity Board under the Department of Environment has also been set up in the state with the initiative of the West Bengal government. The flora of West Bengal depends on the topography of the state. The geographical factors along with the physiography are mainly responsible for the growth and sustenance of these species of plants. According to a survey, carried on by the Forest Department of West Bengal in 1994, the forests cover almost 15.06% of the total area of the state. There are protected forest areas or sanctuaries in the northern part of the state. The Gorumara National Park, Neora Valley National Parks and Sanctuaries at Jaldapara, Chapramari and Mahananda are among the popular tourist spots. The Buxa region is famous for its tiger reserve. Rare species of one horned rhinoceros, elephants, reptiles and birds are found here. The Sunderban is famous for the Royal Bengal tigers. The topography of West Bengal is varied from north to south. In the north, the districts lie in the hilly region of the Himalayas. The Terrai region lies in the foothills of the Himalayan range. The Ganga plain is formed by the river Ganga and her distributaries. The Sunderban is the delta region formed at the confluence of Ganga. There are a number of rivers that flow through the mountainous region of West Bengal. Some of the rivers in this region are Teesta, Torsha, Jaldhaka, Raidak and Sankosh. Further south, Mahananda river flows through the central region. The Hoogly River is an important distributary of Ganga that flows mainly through Kolkata. The main river of West Bengal Ganga is fed by its numerous tributaries and ultimately it forms the estuary before merging with Bay of Bengal. Topography ---------- West Bengal lies in the eastern part of India. The capital city is Kolkata. The total area of the state is 88,752 sq km. The state has a population of 8,02,21,171, according to the census of 2001. The topography of the state of West Bengal is varied and its physiography is very interesting. West Bengal is surrounded by land forms on all three sides. In its south lies the Bay of Bengal. It shares boundaries with Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Bangladesh, Jharkhand and Bihar. The northern part of West Bengal touches the Himalayan range. The hill stations lying in this geographical region are the favorite tourist destinations in India. The climate of this part remains more or less cold through out the year. The foot hills of the Himalayan region is known as the Terrai region in West Bengal. This region is famous the world over for tea plantation. The topography of West Bengal alters as the Indo-Gangetic plain begins. River Ganga with its important distributary, the Hoogly river flow over this region. But the track of river Ganga is steadily moving eastwards. The Hoogly river mostly flow through Kolkata. This Gangetic plain is rich in alluvial soil and thus is very fertile. This kind of soil has helped West Bengal to prosper in agriculture. Further south, the deltaic plain of the Sunderbans is a very important spot for tourism in West Bengal. The river Ganga and its distributaries meet the confluence here. The topography of this region is dotted with mangrove vegetation. Location -------- The state of West Bengal lies in the eastern part of India. The state is mainly a riverine plain land with its northern fringes the foothills of Himalaya. Due to its location, it experiences a tropical kind of climate. The geographical location of West Bengal is 23 degree North latitude and 88 degree East longitude. It is also an important tourist spot in India. In India, West Bengal is considered to be the twelfth largest state. The total area of the state of West Bengal is 88,752 sq km. According to the census of 2001, the state has a population of 8,02,21,171. The location of West Bengal attracts the tourists from all parts of the world. The Northern Himalaya Range surrounds the state. The state of Assam lies in the east where as Sikkim and Bhutan share their boundaries in the north. The country of Nepal is in the north west of West Bengal. To the west of the state lie Bihar and Jharkhand. Due to the favorable location of West Bengal, it can be accessible by roadways, railways and by airways. The hill stations located in the north of the state and the Sunderbans lying in the south are favorite tourist destinations in West Bengal. The location also favors the climate of the state, which makes it suitable for cultivation of different food crops mainly paddy. Flora ------ Flora of a place includes the different species of plant life. West Bengal is full of nature's bounty and the plant life and animal life of this eastern state of India are rich and varied. The diversity of nature in West Bengal depends basically on three factors and these are the location, adequate rainfall and the climate. The flora in the state of West Bengal is classified according to the physiographic regions. In the north of the state lies the mountainous type of forestry, including temperate and tropical forests. Deciduous forest is usually found in the plateau region. The Sunderban area has mangrove forest cover. The tropical evergreen forests of the north are seen at an altitude below 1000 meter and from the altitude of 1000 meter and above a forest cover of sub tropical trees like Cedrela, different varieties of Laurel and Bamboo are found. Temperate forests consist of trees like Conifer, Oak and Rhodendrons. But for the purpose of tea plantation, the some of the forest area has been cleared. The important trees of the hilly region are the Birch, Beech and Deodars. On the moist slopes of the hilly terrain orchids and moss are found to grow in abundance. On higher altitudes small bushes and flowering plants grow. In the foothills of Himalaya, protected forest cover is found. The flora of this region is mainly of moist deciduous type of which, Sal is the most popular variety. Shrubs and heavy undergrowth are found in these forest regions. The flora of West Bengal is different in the Sunderban region than the higher altitudes. Trees like Sundari and Garan are important trees of the Mangrove forest. West Bengal Government ---------------------- The political scenario of the state comprise of the national parties like the Communist Party of India Marxist, CPI, All India Forward Block, Bahujan Samaj Party, the Indian National Congress, the Bharatiya Janata Party, Samajwadi Party, National Congress Party and regional parties like the Trinamool Congress, SUCI, CPIML, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, PDS, JDS, JDU, RSP, etc. The most stable state government of the country, the current West Bengal Government is in the power for the last thirty years at a stretch. The left front led state government of West Bengal has excelled in many aspects over the years. However it has also faced severe criticism in some areas of its activities. The political scenario of the state comprised of the national parties like the Communist Party of India Marxist, CPI, All India Forward Block, Bahujan Samaj Party, the Indian National Congress, the Bharatiya Janata Party, Samajwadi Party, National Congress Party and regional parties like the Trinamool Congress, SUCI, CPIML, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, PDS, JDS, JDU, RSP, etc. West Bengal has forty two constituencies and two hundred and ninety four state legislative assembly seats. The present chief minister of West Bengal is Mr. Buddhadev Bhattacharya who is serving his second consecutive term. He is guided by the Honorable Governor Mr. Gopal Krishna Gandhi. The judiciary of the state comprised of the Calcutta High Court, district courts, West Bengal Human Rights Commissions and few others. The chief justice of the High Court is Mr. Surinder Singh Nijjar. The state government maintains a number of regular ministries like the sports, law and order, power, agriculture, industries and some special ministries. The government also undertake to maintain various departments. The Executive body of the State legislative Assembly of West Bengal helps in the governance of the state. The Unicameral State Legislative Assembly takes important decisions on various vital social, economic and political issues that shape the future of the state of West Bengal. The Executive Body West Bengal is headed by the Governor of the state who is further assisted by the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers. The Governor is appointed by the President of India. At present, West Bengal is blessed with Shri Gopalkrishna Gandhi as the Governor. Being a successful Civil Servant, Shri Gopalkrishna Gandhi is aware of the intricacies of administration. His experience has helped him to rise above the situations and offer instant solutions to the numerous problems faced by the state. The Governor is supported by the Chief Minister, Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee and his Council of Ministers. The Chief Minister and the Councils of Minister are elected by the adult franchise. Anyone who is the citizen of West Bengal and is above eighteen years of age is authorized to cast a vote in favor of any candidate. After the general election as the Member of the Legislative Assembly, the leader of the majority party becomes the Chief Minister. The MLA's come to a consensus and chose a leader amongst them, who is then formally invited by the Governor to form the Government. The Chief Minister then appoints the various Ministers who are assigned with important portfolios. All the Ministers and the Chief Minister are collectively responsible to the state Legislative Assembly. The Executive Body of West Bengal also deals with the Judiciary of the state. The High Court takes all the important decisions regarding the Civil and the Criminal matters affecting the citizens of the state. The High Court is equipped with the Chief Justice and several other Lawyers. The City Civil Court and the Labour and Tribunal Court looks into the matters that falls within their jurisdiction. Assembly Constituencies ----------------------- The state of West Bengal is divided into 294 assembly constituencies. The members of the state legislative assembly are elected from these assembly constituencies. The state has been divided into 294 assembly constituencies to ensure adequate representation of the people of the state in the legislative assembly. The assembly constituencies include an appropriate representation of the people and the populace of every district of the state of West Bengal. The districts maybe divided into a number of constituencies to secure the interest of each citizen. The elected members of the assembly constituencies become members of the Vidahn Sabha or the legislative assembly of the state of West Bengal situated in the capital city of Kolkata. The city of Kolkata is divided into more than 10 assembly constituencies that include the constituencies of Dum Dum, Alipore, Tollygaunge, Dhakuria, Ballygaunje and Sealdah. To protect the vested interests of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes of the state, the electoral body of the country has made provisions for their adequate representation through the assembly constituencies. There are several West Bengal assembly constituencies that elect the members of these categories. Mekliganj, Sitalkuchi, Malda, Sagardigha, Raiganj, Rajnagar and Taltola constituency of Kolkata elect members of the scheduled caste. Some of the constituencies that elect scheduled tribe members are Raipur, Nayagram, Kalchini, Nagrakata and Mal. Assembly Constituencies of West Bengal ====================================== Mekliganj (SC) Mathabhanga (SC) Coochbehar Uttar (SC) Coochbehar Dakshin Sitalkuchi (SC) Sitai (SC) Dinhata Natabari Tufanganj Kumargram (ST) Kalchini (ST) Alipurduars Falakata (SC) Madarihat (ST) Dhupguri (SC) Maynaguri (SC) Jalpaiguri (SC) Rajganj (SC) Abgram-Fulbari Mal (ST) Nagrakata (ST) Kalimpong Darjeeling Kurseong Matigaranaxalbari (SC) Siliguri Phansidewa (ST) Chopra Islampur Goalpokhar Chakulia Karandighi Hemtabad (SC) Kaliaganj (SC) Raiganj Itahar Kushmandi (SC) Kumarganj Balurghat Tapan(ST) Gangarampur (SC) Harirampur Habibpur (ST) Gazole (SC) Chanchal Harischandra Pur Malatipur Ratua Manikchak Maldaha (SC) English Bazar Mothabari Sujapur Baisnabnagar Farakka Samserganj Suti Jangipur Raghunathganj Sagardighi Lalgola Bhagawangola Raninagar Murshidabad Nabagram (SC) Khargram (SC) Burwan (SC) Kandi Bharatpur Rejinagar Beldanga Baharampur Hariharpara Nowda Domkal Jalangi Karimpur Tehatta Palashipara Kaliganj Nakashipara Chapra Krishnanagar Uttar Nabadwip Krishnanagar Dakshin Santipur Ranaghat Uttar Paschim Krishnaganj (SC) Ranaghat Uttar Purba (SC) Ranaghat Dakshin (SC) Chakdaha Kalyani (SC) Haringhata (SC) Bagda (SC) Bangaon Uttar (SC) Bangaon Dakshin (SC) Gaighata (SC) Swarupnagar (SC) Baduria Habra Ashoknagar Amdanga Bijpur Naihati Bhatpara Jagatdal Noapara Barrackpur Khardaha Dum Dum Uttar Panihati Kamarhati Baranagar Dum Dum Rajarhat New Town Bidhannagar Rajarhat Gopalpur Madhyamgram Barasat Deganga Haroa Minakhan (SC) Sandeshkhali (ST) Basirhat Dakshin Basirhat Uttar Hingalganj (SC) Gosaba (SC) Basanti (SC) Kultali (SC) Patharpratima Kakdwip Sagar Kulpi Raidighi Mandirbazar (SC) Jaynagar (SC) Baruipur Purba (SC) Canning Paschim (SC) Canning Purba Baruipur Paschim Magrahat Purba (SC) Magrahat Paschim Diamond Harbour Falta Satgachhia Bishnupur (SC) Sonarpur Dakshin Bhangar Kasba Jadavpur Sonarpur Uttar Tollyganj Behala Purba Behala Paschim Maheshtala Budge Budge Metiaburuz Kolkata Port Bhabanipur Rashbehari Ballygunge Chowrangee Entally Beleghata Jorasanko Shyampukur Maniktala Kashipurbelgachhia Bally Howrah Uttar Howrah Madhya Shibpur Howrah Dakshin Sankrail (SC) Panchla Uluberia Purba Uluberia Uttar (SC) Uluberia Dakshin Shyampur Bagnan Amta Udaynarayanpur Jagatballavpur Domjur Uttarpara Sreerampur Champdani Singur Chandannagar Chunchura Balagarh (SC) Pandua Saptagram Chanditala Jangipara Haripal Dhanekhali (SC) Tarakeswar Pursurah Arambag (SC) Goghat (SC) Khanakul Tamluk Panskura Purba Panskura Paschim Moyna Nandakumar Mahisadal Haldia (SC) Nandigram Chandipur Patashpur Kanthi Uttar Bhagabanpur Khejuri (SC) Kanthi Dakshin Ramnagar Egra Dantan Nayagram (ST) Gopiballavpur Jhargram Keshiary (ST) Kharagpur Sadar Narayangarh Sabang Pingla Kharagpur Debra Daspur Ghatal (SC) Chandrakona (SC) Garbeta Salboni Keshpur (SC) Medinipur Binpur (ST) Bandwan (ST) Balarampur Baghmundi Joypur Purulia Manbazar (ST) Kashipur Para (SC) Raghunathpur (SC) Saltora (SC) Chhatna Ranibandh (ST) Raipur (ST) Taldangra Bankura Barjora Onda Bishnupur Katulpur (SC) Indus (SC) Sonamukhi (SC) Khandaghosh (SC) Bardhaman Dakshin Raina (SC) Jamalpur (SC) Monteswar Kalna (SC) Memari Bardhaman Uttar (SC) Bhatar Purbasthali Dakshin Purbasthali Uttar Katwa Ketugram Mangalkot Ausgram (SC) Galsi (SC) Pandabeswar Durgapur Purba Durgapur Paschim Raniganj Jamuria Asansol Dakshin Asansol Uttar Kulti Barabani Dubrajpur (SC) Suri Bolpur Nanoor (SC) Labpur Sainthia (SC) Mayureswar Rampurhat Hansan Nalhati Murarai ====================================== Tehsil of West Bengal ===================== Bankura Tehsil Barddhman Tehsil Birbhum Tehsil Dakshin Dinajpur Tehsil Puruliya Tehsil South 24 Parganas Tehsil Purba Mednipur Tehsil Darjiling Tehsil Haora Tehsil Hugli Tehsil Jalpaiguri Tehsil Koch Bihar Tehsil Uttar Dinajpur Tehsil Kolkata Tehsil Maldah Tehsil Murshidabad Tehsil Nadia Tehsil North 24 Parganas Tehsil Paschim Mednipur Tehsil ======================================= National Political Parties -------------------------- West Bengal is a state, which has contributed a lot to the country's political richness. The state has always sent able representatives who have made unforgettable impressions in national level politics. Thus the National Political Parties have always shown immense interest in the West Bengal state politics. The main National Political Parties in West Bengal are: - Indian National Congress Communist Party of India Communist Party of India - Marxist Bharatiya Janta Party Bahujan Samaj Party Janata Dal - Secular Janata Dal - United Nationalist Congress Party Among the National Political Parties, the Indian National Congress has always been powerful in West Bengal; in fact it is the politicians from West Bengal who had played a major role in its inception. After the Indian Independence, the Indian National Congress, despite its divisions and break ups, managed to hold on to the power before it was finally overthrown by the Left Front in 1977. The Communist Party of India or the CPI was established in 1925 but it remains as an underground party till 1942. The Communist Party of India Marxist - CPIM, broke away from the original Communist Party of India due to ideological differences. The two parties came together in the left front and have been in power since 1977 - a record success. The left front emerged victorious again in the 2006 state assembly elections to serve its eighth consecutive term. The Bharatiya Janta Party - BJP was not very strong in the state politics till the recent years. The JD-S, JD - U and Nationalist Congress Party have also come into the political frame of the state. Parliamentary Constituencies ---------------------------- There are 42 parliamentary constituencies in the state of West Bengal. The members of the parliamentary constituencies of the state are elected to the Lok Sabha or the lower house of legislature of the country. The parliamentary constituencies are distributed all over the state. The government ensures that there is adequate representation of the state in the Lok Sabha. The parliamentary constituencies in a state are divided according to the number of seats in the legislative assembly of the state. The state of West Bengal has reservations of 294 seats in the legislative assembly of the state. The representation of the state of West Bengal in the parliament accounts for a seat for every seventh member of the legislative assembly of the state. Among the 42 parliamentary constituencies, provisions have been made for the representation of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes of the state. 8 seats are reserved for the scheduled castes while there are provisions for 2 seats in the house for the scheduled tribes. The elected members of the Alipurduar and the Jhargram parliamentary constituencies represent the scheduled tribes of the state in the parliament constituted after the elections in 2004. The members of the scheduled caste were elected from Cooch Behar, Balurghat, Nabadwip, Joynagar, Mathurapur, Vishnupur, Durgapur and Birbhum for the 2004 election to the Lok Sabha. West Bengal is the sixth most populous state of the country, along with being the sixth largest contributor to India's GDP. The state has held regular elections since independence and is known for its political activism. Parliamentary Seats -------------------- West Bengal elects 42 representatives to the lower house of the Parliament or Lok Sabha, the third highest in the country. The state sends 16 members to the Rajya Sabha. Of these 42 seats, eight are reserved for candidates from Scheduled Caste (SC) while two constituencies - Alipurduars and Jhargram are reserved for the Scheduled Tribes (ST) candidates. Some important parliamentary constituencies of West Bengal are Cooch Behar, Dum Dum, Dakshin Kolkata, Birbhum, Jadhavpur, Purulia and Kolkata Uttar. Till 1969, the state assembly was bicameral but at present it is unicameral. Major Political Parties ---------------------- The main national parties active in West Bengal are: The Communist party of India (CPI) The Communist party of India (Marxist) [CPI(M)]v The Indian National Congress (INC) The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) The regional parties in the state are: All India Trinamool Congress (AITMC) All India Forward Block Revolutionary Socialist Party Gorakha National Liberation Front Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Democratic Socialist Party (Prabodh Chandra) Socialist Unity center of India (Communist) Election History ----------------- The election history of West Bengal is dominated by the CPI (M) and the INC, though recently AITMC has successfully challenged their dominance. INC ruled the state from 1947 to 1967. In 1967, United Front came to power. It won the 1971 elections too, but failed to complete its term. In 1972, INC returned to power. In 1977, CPM emerged victorious and was led by Jyoti Basu till 2011. Jyoti Basu remained the CM till 2000. Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee took over in 2000 and led the party to victory in the 2006 elections. However in 2011, Mamata Bannerjee led AITMC to power, thereby ending 34 years of Left-rule in West Bengal. In elections to the Lok Sabha, INC was the leading party in 1951 and 1956 elections. CPM won seats for the first time in 1962 elections, though INC continued to be the leading party. In 1967, INC's share of seats came down. In the 1971 elections, CPM emerged as the leading party and remained the dominant party till 1980. INC made a comeback in the 1984 elections by winning 15 seats only to be reduced to four seats in the 1989 elections. CPM continued to be the leading party from 1989 till 2004 elections. In 2009, AITMC won 19 seats, thus emerging as the leading party in West Bengal. Major Politicians ----------------- 2014 general elections saw a keen contest between the major political parties. Some politicians who contested the 2014 general elections are: Tapan Sikdar : He is a former Union Minister of State during the NDA regime. Sikdar represented the Dum Dum constituency in the 12th and 13th Lok Sabha and was the BJP candidate from the same constituency this year. Bhaichung Bhutia : A prominent footballer, Bhutia contested from the Darjeeling constituency. This is his first attempt into electoral politics. Mohammed Salim : An important politician from the CPI (M), he represented Calcutta North constituency in the 14th Lok Sabha. He contested from the Raiganj constituency. Some prominent MPs in the 15th Lok Sabha are: Dinesh Trivedi : He represented the Barrackpore constituency and is a former Union Minister for Railways and Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare. He is the chairperson of the Indo - European Union Parliamentary Forum (IEUPF). Gurudas Dasgupta : A leader of the CPI, Dasgupta was an MP from the Ghatal constituency. He is a former General Secretary of the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC). Narahari Mahato : He is a member of the All India Forward Block (AIFB). He represented the Purulia constituency and is a member of the Committee on Coal and Steel and Committee on Papers Laid on the Table. Deepa Dasmunsi : She is a politician from the INC and represented the Raiganj constituency. She was elected to the West Bengal state assembly for the first time in 2006 and is currently the Union Minister of State for Urban Development. Famous Political Personalities -------------------------------- West Bengal has given India a number of visionary politicians. Some of them are: Subhas Chandra Bose : Popularly called Netaji; he was an Indian freedom fighter of great renown. He founded the Forward Block in 1939 and headed the Indian National Army (INA). Bidhan Chandra Ray : He is a leader of the INC. He was appointed as the second Chief Minister of West Bengal and maintained power in the post for 14 years. He is credited for founding five cities in the state. Prafulla Chandra Sen : A renowned freedom fighter and a Gandhian, Sen was the Chief Minister of West Bengal from 1961-67. He is noted for introducing food grain rationing in the state. Jyoti Basu : He was the longest serving Chief Minister of any state in India and was in power in West Bengal from 1977 to 2000. Basu, a CPI(M) leader was first elected for the legislative assembly in 1952. Pranab Mukherjee : He is the current President of India. He started his political career in 1969 and as a leader of the INC held many important portfolios in the Defense, External Affairs and Finance ministries. Siddhartha Shankar Ray : He is a politician of the INC and was the Chief Minister of West Bengal from 1972 to 1977. He was also a former Governor of Punjab and the Education Minister of India. Somnath Chatterjee : He is a prominent CPI(M) politician. He won his first Lok Sabha elections in 1971, and was the leader of CPI(M) in the Lok Sabha from 1989 to 2004. He was the Speaker of the Lok Sabha from 2004 to 2009. Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee : He is a member of the Politburo of CPI(M) and was the Chief Minister of West Bengal from 2000 to 2011. He was elected to the state assembly for the first time in 1977. As a Chief Minister he is credited for liberalizing Bengal's economy. Mamata Bannerjee : She started her career as a Congress politician. She founded the All India Trinamool Congress (AITMC or TMC) in 1997. She was a Union Minister in the NDA and UPA-II regime. In 2011, she became the first female Chief Minister of West Bengal. ======================================================= Parliamentary Constituencies in West Bengal ======================================================= PC No. PC Name PC No. PC Name ====== =============== ====== ======================= 1 Cooch Behar 22 Jadavpur 2 Alipurduars 23 Kolkata Dakshin 3 Jalpaiguri 24 Kolkata Uttar 4 Darjeeling 25 Howrah 5 Raiganj 26 Uluberia 6 Balurghat 27 Serampore 7 Maldaha Uttar 28 Hooghly 8 Maldaha Dakshin 29 Arambagh 9 Jangipur 30 Tamluk 10 Baharampur 31 Kanthi 11 Murshidabad 32 Ghatal 12 Krishnanagar 33 Jhargram 13 Ranaghat 34 Medinipur 14 Bangaon 35 Purulia 15 Barrackpore 36 Bankura 16 Dum Dum 37 Bishnupur 17 Barasat 38 Bardhaman Purba 18 Basirhat 39 Bardhaman-Durgapur 19 Joynagar 40 Asansol 20 Mathurapur 41 Bolpur 21 Diamond Harbour 42 Birbhum ======================================================== The establishment of "Growth Centers" in India has been taken up by the state and the central government with the strategy of all round development of the states as well as the nation. An emphasis has been put on rural development and rural- urban integration. The "Fourth Five Year Plan" for the years 1969 to 1974 saw the launch of a research project for establishing twenty investigation and research cells for recognizing the various growth centers in different states. West Bengal, one of the economic hubs for India has responded and contributed significantly to the establishment of growth centers with modernize infrastructure, all across the state. The government of West Bengal has taken the help of "West Bengal Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation" (WBIIDC) in creating the growth centers. WBIIDC has created twelve growth centers in various regions of West Bengal like Kalyani (Phase 1, 2, 3), Uluberia, Falta, Raninagar, Bishnupur, Coochbehar, Dadgram, Malda, Kharagpur and Haldia. Besides these three growth centers in Bolpur, Jalpaiguri and Malda (Phase 2) are also coming up. Further elite growth centers for the electronics industries, "Export Processing Industrial Park" at Durgapur, "Software Technology Park" in Salt Lake and "Export Processing Zone" in Falta has also emerged within the state. The growth centers have been provided with the state of the art infrastructure which includes developed land, water supply, internal drainage and sewage system, industrial shed, power supply, street lightning etc, Other facilities that are in the list for the upcoming growth centers include telephone, post offices, banks, fire stations, shopping centers, recreational centers, police outposts WBIIDC has also facilitated and promoted the growth of industrial parks. Some of these include the following. Manikanchan SEZ, Salt Lake, Kolkata Apparel Export Park, Uluberia, Howrah District 5 Shilpangan (Light Engineering Park), Salt Lake, Kolkata Garment Park, Kolkata Poly Park, Howrah District Food Park (Phase I & II ), Howrah District Rubber Park, Sankrail, Howrah District Steel Park (Phase - I & II), Bankura District Biotech Park Bio, West Midnapore District Iron & Steel Park, Kharagpur, West Midnapore District Foundry Park, Howrah Iron & Steel Park, Guptamoni ,Jhargram ,West Midnapore District There are quite a number of exclusive Intelligent Parks that are being established in West Bengal which is one of the nucleuses for the IT companies. Many private entrepreneurs are also contributing to this by setting up the high-tech intelligent buildings and parks. West Bengal is also preparing to launch a number of "Mega IT" projects. Several IT Parks that have already been established are listed below. Technopolis Sector V, Salt Lake Infinity Benchmark Sector V, Salt Lake Globsys Crystals Sector V, Salt Lake Infinity Waterside Sector V, Salt Lake The Hub Sector V, Salt Lake Millenium City Sector V, Salt Lake Bengal Intelligent Park Sector V, Salt Lake Bharatiya Janta Party West Bengal --------------------------------- The Bharatiya Janta Party, despite its national success has not been able to make much impressions in the West Bengal politics till it made ally with the Trinamool Congress and wrested a major Lok Sabha seat in 1998 Parliamentary Elections. Since then the BJP in West Bengal has emerged as a force to reckon. However it has a long way to go to compete with the influence that the Left Front and the Congress have on the state's political scenario. The origin of the Bharatiya Janta Party dates back to 1951 when Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee founded the Bharatiya Jana Sangha or the BJS. It was much later in 1980 that the Jana Sanghis founded the Bharatiya Janta Party. The initial days of the party were not smooth. The party received a hard blow in the 1984 Lok Sabha Elections, losing hands down to the Congress. However it gathered strength with time and won the 1998 with its allies in NDA - National Democratic Alliance. The Bharatiya Janta Party made allies with Mamata Banerjee led Trinamool Congress in West Bengal. However in the last State Assembly elections in 2006, both the parties fared quite poorly. The Left front emerged as the winner and the Congress came out as the major opposition party once again. Ministry of Fisheries of West Bengal ------------------------------------ The Ministry of Fisheries under the Government of West Bengal looks after the scope to promote fisheries in the state. They are looking forward to bring all the different type of water bodies here into fisheries by being eco-friendly. They aim to involve a lot of people in this activity to uplift their economic conditions. The Ministry of Fisheries is promoting Fisheries in the economically backward regions of the state. This effort is expected to employ a large group of the population of these areas. They are also planning to utilize the coastal stretch of West Bengal to the fullest. The Ministry of Fisheries is headed by a Minister in Charge. Presently the Minister of Fisheries is Shri Kiranmay Nanda. The Secretary and the Nodal Officer assist him. Shri R.P.S Kahalon, IAS is presently the Secretary to the Ministry of Fisheries in West Bengal. Shri A.K Bhattacharya, WBCS is the Nodal Officer here. The Ministry of Fisheries of West Bengal can be contacted at the following telephone numbers Minister in Charge 22145755 22145600 Extension- 4106/ 4535 Secretary 22145777 Nodal Officer 22145600 Extension- 4712 They are presently promoting Fishery as a major economic activity in the areas near Digha. Talshari and Sankarpur are two such centers. For a proper growth of this activity this Special Ministry of West Bengal is also looking after the development of these areas. By exploiting all the scopes for Fishery in West Bengal the Ministry of Fisheries in the state is expected to bring a striking change in the economic structure. West Bengal Politics -------------------- The state of West Bengal has arguably the maximum number of politically aware people. Right from the time of the freedom struggle, the state has led the country in the field of Politics. Numerous leaders of extraordinary caliber hailed from this region, which includes Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Rashbehari Bose, Chittaranjan Das and many others in the post independence era. Politics and West Bengal are synonymous and perhaps it is one of the few states in the country where people vote keeping their political inclinations in mind and not influenced by religion or caste. The state of West Bengal is dived into forty two parliamentary constituencies and two hundred and ninety four State Legislative Assembly seats. Various parties of national and regional exposure contest in the election to form the state government. National parties like the Communist Party of India - Marxist, Communist Party of India, Indian National Congress, All India Forward Block, regional parties like Trinamool Congress, SUCI, RSP, PDS, Jharkand Mukti Morcha etc. The highest executive power of the state of West Bengal is with the Governor. The present Governor of the state is Mr. Gopal Krishna Gandhi while Mr. Buddhadev Bhattacharya is the Chief Minster. The Calcutta High Court is the highest seat of judiciary in the state and Mr. Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar is the current chief justice of the court. With its political and administrative structure, the political scenario in the state of West Bengal is active as ever. Special Ministries of West Bengal ---------------------------------- Some Special Ministries are appointed by the Government of West Bengal for the purpose of development in the specified areas. These Ministries look after the progress and growth of certain fields to enable them flourish. Different promotional activities are carried out by the departments under these Special Ministries of the Government of West Bengal. Each such Ministries are headed by a minister. For example the Ministry of Tourism is lead by Tourism Minister, Shri Manabendra Mukherjee. This branch of the government looks after the development of the tourism industry in the state. They are shouldering the responsibility of promoting new spots as sites of tourist attraction. They arrange for government lodges in remote locations to facilitate the tourists. There major aim is to look after the interests of the visitors. The Ministry of Fisheries is also another important branch of the state government. This department is headed by Shri Kiranmay Nanda. This Special Ministry looks forward to the development of fisheries in the state of West Bengal. The other Special Ministries in the state are the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Ministry of IT. The Ministry of Home Affairs functions to rehabilitate the people coming to West Bengal from other regions. The Ministry related to IT is one of the most important departments of the state government because of the IT revolution that is presently going on. These Special Ministries of West Bengal work towards the progress of the economic activities and the welfare of the state. State Commissions West Bengal ------------------------------ The administrative bodies of the state of West Bengal are quite well formulated. The responsibilities are well distributed and compartmentalized. Certain State Commissions are responsible for different issues. These State Commissions of West Bengal help in proper functioning of the state government. Different members of the Legislative Assembly of West Bengal are responsible for different Commissions under the government. These bodies look after the various primary sectors of the government. All these State Commissions are headed by a Chairperson. Apart from the Chairperson there is also a secretary and several other members in the Commission. Some of the most important State Commissions in West Bengal are the Public Service Commission,the Human Rights Commission, the Finance Commission, State Commission for Women, the Election Commission and the Electricity Regulatory Commission. Retired Justice S.K Paujdar is the chairperson of the State Electricity Regulatory Commission. This Commission is responsible for determining the tariff and regulate the purchase of power. The present office of the State Electricity Regulatory Commission is located in Salt Lake of Kolkata. Honorable Justice Sri Shyamal Kumar Sen is the Chairperson of the Human Rights Commission of West Bengal. Sri B Mahapatra, IAS is the secretary of this Commission. It works according to the regulations set up by the state government. The basic determinants of` the Public Service Commission of West Bengal are the values of impartiality, integrity and independence. Sri T.K Bose holds the office of the chairperson of this State Commission. The presence of these State Commissions make the work of the state Government of West Bengal easier. Trinamool Congress West Bengal ------------------------------ The Trinamool Congress (TMC) is a state level political party, which functions in the state of West Bengal. The leader of Trinamool Congress (TMC), Mamata Banerjee, broke away from another state level party, West Bengal Pradesh Congress, to form a strong opposition against the Communist Party of India - Maxist (CPIM). It is an anti-left front political party, which was known as West Bengal Trinamool Congress at the time of its inception. In the year 1998, the West Bengal Trinamool Congress made ally with some of the unsuccessful electorates from the different states in India to form the All India Trinamool Congress. It was formed with the objective to take the Trinamool Congress to the national level. It took part in the elections of several other Indian states along with the elections in West Bengal. Although it could not make a big mark on the national front, Trinamool Congress won the control of Kolkata in the municipal elections in the year 2000. In the next election in the year 2005, it lost its position. Around the election of the Lok Sabha in the year 2004, the All India Trinamool Congress led by Mamata Banerjee, merged with a fraction of Nationalist Congress Party in India. This breakaway part of the Nationalist Congress Party was led by P.A. Sangma. This newly formed party was known as Nationalist Trinamool Congress. Before this union, there were different sections of the Trinamool Congress. These different divisions were named as: Trinamool Chhatra Parishad - The students' faction of the Trinamool Congress party, Indian National Trinamool Trade Union Congress - the trade union wing of Trinamool Congress Nationalist Democratic Teachers' Association - the teachers branch of Trinamool Congress West Bengal Judiciary --------------------- The state of West Bengal is blessed with a systematic and organised judiciary that helps in the quick delivery of justice. Unlike United States of America, India does not follow a Federal system of Government. India adheres to the Unitary System of governance under which the Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority that is supported by the High Courts of each state. The state of West Bengal is blessed with a systematic and organized Judiciary that helps in the quick delivery of justices. Unlike United States of America, India does not follow a Federal system of Government. India adheres to the Unitary System of governance under which the Supreme Court is the highest Judicial authority that is supported by the High Courts of each state. At the top of the State Judiciary system stands the High Court of Kolkata, which is headed by Chief Justice, Shri Surinder Singh Nijjar. The High Court of the state boasts of being one of the oldest High Courts of India. Constructed in the Gothic Architectural style, the High Court stands tall with its over imposing structures amidst the busy and crowded streets of Kolkata. There are two types of Courts under the High Court of Kolkata. One is the Criminal Court that deals with criminal matters and the other is the Civil Court that deals with civil issues. The highest Court in the district to try the criminal cases is the Session Judges Court. In the metropolitan areas like Kolkata, criminal cases are tried by the Metropolitan Magistrates. The civil cases are tried by the City Civil Courts by experienced Judicial Officers. The Labor Court and the Industrial Tribunals deal with cases pertaining to the laborers and industrial disputes of the state of West Bengal. The Judiciary in West Bengal is arranged in a pyramidal order. There are two parallel pyramids of Courts- the Civil Courts and the Criminal Courts. The peaks of the two pyramids meet at the High Court of West Bengal. All the other Courts fall under the strict supervision of the High Court of Kolkata. Chief Justice West Bengal ------------------------- One of the most revered position, Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar is the newly appointed Chief Justice of West Bengal. A man of principles, Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar was born in the year 1949 on 7th of June. At a tender age of twelve, the Chief Justice went to England to pursue his studies and did his graduation in Law from the University of London in 1972. Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar started his career as a advocate in the Bar Council of London. However, his attachment to his mother land brought him back to India and he was appointed as the advocate of Punjab and Haryana Court from 28th of April, 1977. Thereafter, Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar never looked back in his career. He served as a advocate in the District Courts, the Departmental Authorities, and Central Administrative Tribunals of Chandigarh. The eminent Justice also worked as a Standing Counsel to the several nationalizes banks, Universities and Governmental Organizations and acquired vast expanse of knowledge and experience. In 1989 Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar was promoted to the post of the Senior Advocate. The eminent Jurist served in the High Courts of Chandigarh, Punjab, Haryana and Punjab as Additional Judge where he is known to have delivered landmark judgments on various important issues. Realizing his vast potentialities, Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar was elevated to the post of acting Chief Justice of Punjab and Haryana Court. However all his hard work was crowned with glory when Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar was awarded the post of the Chief Justice of West Bengal on the 7th of March in the year 2007. As the Chief Justice of West Bengal, Justice Surinder Singh Nijjar took several landmark decisions that exposed his true potentialities and helped in the restoration of peace in the state as well City Civil Court West Bengal ---------------------------- The City Civil Court of Kolkata deals with all the important civil matters and helps in the quick delivery of justices to the petitioners. Located in the Kiran Shankar Roy Road of Kolkata, the City Civil Court boasts of being one of the ancient Civil Courts of India. The City Civil Court of Kolkata is known for its transparency and the effectiveness with which the eminent Judicial Officers deal with the cases. The City Civil Court of Kolkata has a rich judicial history. The Court has given landmark decisions on various issues affecting the interest of the petitioners. At present the City Civil Court is led by the eminent personalities from the field of Judiciary. The Judges of the Court are known for the transparency of the cases. Under the strict supervision of the High Court of the state of West Bengal, the City Civil Court of Kolkata deals with all the civil matters with exceptional clarity and precision. The advocates and the Lawyers prepare their cases according to the strict rules and regulations. High Court West Bengal --------------------- One of the oldest High Court of India, the Calcutta High Court was established by the Letters Patent of 14th of May in 1862. Justice P. Chakravartti was the first Indian Judge to preside over the various proceedings of the Court. The Calcutta High Court has a rich judicial history which is known to deliver famous landmark judgments. The High Court of Calcutta is known to deliver quick decisions on the numerous pending cases. Any citizen of the state can apply in the High Court if the petitioner is not satisfied with the decision of the Lower Courts of the state. Recently the High Court of West Bengal gave several important decisions regarding the issue of industrialization of the state. The significant decisions of the High Court helped to restore the peace and decorum in the state of West Bengal Labour Court and Tribunal West Bengal ------------------------------------- The Labour Court and Tribunal of West Bengal helps in the quick delivery of justices in any matters related to the industrial or labour disputes. The state of West Bengal is blessed with a systematic and organized Labour Court and Tribunal that solves the various judicial problems related to the labour Unions, Industrial Processes or anything that hurts the sentiments of the work force of the state. The Labour Courts and the Industrial Tribunals are set up under the Industrial Disputes Act of 1947. The West Bengal State Government has led to the establishment of Labour Courts and Industrial Tribunals. The labour Courts are empowered to decide on important issues pertaining to the suspension of labourers from work, the legal dimensions of the strikes and many other issues related to the welfare of the individual labourers of the state. The Industrial Tribunals are empowered to decide on the wages, duration of duty hours, and any other issues related to the collective problems of the labourers in general. The Labour Court is presided by a officer who has served one of the Judicial Office for a minimum term of seven years or has been a Presiding Officer in one of the labour Court under the State Act for a minimum of five years. In addition to this, the Presiding Officer should have been a District Judge or Additional District Judge for a continuous period of three years or a Judge of the High Court. Society and Culture of West Bengal ---------------------------------- About three quarters of the population lives in the villages. Of the different religions, Hinduism, with its substrata of castes and aboriginal tribes, claims the adherence of more than three-fourths of the population, most of the remainder being Muslim. West Bengal contains about 40 recognised communities of tribes--the better known among them being the Santals, Oraons, Munas, Lepchas, and Bhutias--that make up less than one-tenth of the total population. Bengali is the language of most of the people, with Hindi, Urdu, Nepali, and English as minority languages. English, however, is the language of administration and a lingua franca for business purposes. The state of West Bengal is culturally rich and vibrant. The West Bengal Society reflects the heritage that dates back to several centuries. Art, literature and music are the integral part of the society of the state. Nearly in every house you will find a member involved in one of these art forms. The West Bengal society is a cosmopolitan society. The great men namely Rabindranath Tagore, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and the filmmaker Satyajit Ray enriched the West Bengal society with their unparalled contributions. The nobel laureate, Rabindra Nath Tagore introduced renaissance in the culture of Bengal. The cultural enlightenment of Calcutta has been brought about by the premier institutions like the University of Calcutta, the Presidency College and the Medical College in Kolkata. The West Bengal society is a cosmopolitan society. The population of the state comprises people from different religion, sect, race and tribe. The cosmopolitan nature of the society makes it more lively and dynamic. The people of West Bengal are friendly and amicable and this is quite evident when you visit the state during the festive seasons of Durga Puja, Diwali and Christmas. The state's society is also known for its unique delicacies. It is a gastronomic paradise for food lovers who come here to enjoy rossogolla, bhapa illish, luchi, aloo dum, macher kalia, chingri macher malai curry and many more. Culture --------- West Bengal is one of the states of India with a rich and glorious cultural heritage. People from various sect, tribe and religious background live in the state and follow different rituals and customs, thus enriching the culture of the state. The cultural diversity of the state is reflected through the various languages and dialects. Various art forms like dance, music and craft are ingrained in the culture of West Bengal. In the field of fine arts Bengal's name has been written in golden words. The main contributors in this field are Abanindranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jyotirindranath Tagore, Jamini Roy, Gaganendranath Tagore, Ramkinkar Baij, Rabindranath Tagore. Even in the field of literature, Bengal has contributed immensely. The legendary writers of Bengali origin are Kabi Jayadeva, Rabindranath Tagore, N.C. Chowdhuri, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Isvar Chandra Gupta, Madhusudan Dutta, Sarat Chandra Chatterjee, Amitav Ghosh, Arundhati Roy, Sukumar Roy, Kazi Najrul Islam, Jivananda Das, Bibhutibhushan Banerjee, Sunil Gangopadhaya, Shirshendu Mukherjee and many more. The cultural heritage has been influenced by various folk music and dance like Baul music, Gombhira, Bhawaiya, Chhau Dance. Fairs and festivals like Durga Puja, Diwali, Holi, Poila Baisakh and many more stimulate the cultural life of the people. The five-day festival of Durga Puja portrays the cultural beauty of the state. People from far off places come here and soak in the spiritual celebration of the festival. People ------- People of West Bengal belong to different caste, culture, creed, religion and sect. The traditional dress of the people of Bengal is dhoti with a shirt. The modern urban population prefers pyjama and trousers for its convenience. But the elderly people still enjoy wearing this traditional dress. Women both in rural and urban areas wear sari and also trousers, salwar kameez etc. 40 distinguished communities of tribes are found in West Bengal, some of them are the Santals, Munas, Oraons, Lepchas, and Bhutias. These tribes constitute nearly one-tenth of the total population of the state. The people of West Bengal are mostly Hindus and follow the religious way of Hindus. A major portion of the population is comprised of Muslim community. There are also people who follow Buddhism, Christianity and Sikhism. The cosmopolitan nature of the society is due to the wide variety of people residing in the state. One of the main occupations of the people of West Bengal is agriculture. The rural people are engaged in the cultivation of rice, wheat, pulses, and vegetables etc. that cater not only to the requirement of the state but also of the country. The people of West Bengal speak Bengali, but languages like Hindi, Punjabi, Bhojpuri are also spoken here. People from five different racial strains inhabit West Bengal. The oldest of the race is Proto-Australian in origin. Nishadics are predominantly the tribal groups found in the areas adjoining the plateaus and Chhotanagpur and central India. The tribes are short in height with long head, dark coloured skin and broad nose. The Dravidians with long head, tall structure and sharp nose are also found in Bengal. The race found in Darjeeling is the Mongoloid. The fifth race is the Alpine or Indo-Aryan race, which have a fair complexion, prominent nose and long body. West Bengal Crafts ------------------ Bengal has always led the cultural brigade of the country. Be it in music, performing arts or crafts - the state has exemplary expertise over a varied range of artifacts and handicrafts. For ages the artists and craftsmen of Bengal have supplied the country and the world with exciting and colourful handicrafts. Crafts in Bengal can be divided into many segments. Some of them are:- Leather Craft Bamboo and Cane Bell and Brass Metal Clay Dolls Ceramic Horn Work Jute Products Sandalwood Carving Weaving Pottery Mangalghat Lakshmi Ghat Tulsimancha Manasa Ghat Shell Carvings Carving Bone Carvings Stone Carvings Wood Works Dokra Metal Craft Silk Screens Each and every craft work has a uniqueness of its own. Weavers in Bengal are expert in various forms of the craft. Jamdani, Kantha and other kind of handloom products owe much to the rich weaving artistry of Bengal. The state is also blessed with some extraordinary metal and stone crafts. These include metal and stone sculptures, show pieces, jewellery etc. The Dokra Metal works is a very rare form of handicraft found in Bengal and few other eastern parts of India. Craftsmen of Bengal are also expert in various kinds of carvings like stone, bone, wood and shell carvings. Pottery -------- West Bengal, one of the eastern states of India is known for its handiworks of which pottery is one of the most popular one. In West Bengal, the small-scale industry of pottery is carried on in the districts of Bankura, Murshidabad and Midnapore. Generally the women folk of the villages are involved with this industry. Sometimes men too engage themselves in making pottery. There are a number of varieties of the pottery of West Bengal. They are made from clay and found in different sizes and shapes. Pottery is one of the indigenous artifacts that are prevalent in the state from the ancient times. The pottery is also used for various purposes. Mangalghats are earthen vases that are generally painted and coloured by the potters of the village of West Bengal. They are considered to be an essential object in the diligent Hindu homes of West Bengal. This type of pottery is also used in different household functions like marriage ceremonies, in birth rituals and during the auspicious rituals of initiation. The Lakshmi Ghat or vases generally comes in auspicious pairs. One of the ghat of the pair is meant for Lakshmi or the goddess of wealth and the other one for Lord Ganesha. Lakshmi Ghat is used during the worship of the goddess of wealth, also known as Lakshmi in West Bengal. This type of vase is considered very auspicious among all other pottery of West Bengal. The Manasha Ghats come in different sizes. These are earthenwares that are painted to pay homage to the serpent goddess. The drawings are mainly done on upturned earthen jars. Along with drawing the face of the goddess, the hoods of snake are also drawn on the ghats. Tulsimancha is made from earth and sometimes it is also built of bricks. This kind of pottery has various motifs of gods and goddesses especially of Krishna and Radha. The Tulsimancha is built in the manner of a pedestal raised for about three to four feet from the ground. The diameter of this structure is generally about one and half to only two feet. The borders of it are curved on all sides. The shape of Tulsimancha can vary from a rectangular, octagonal or hexagonal structure. The motifs that are made on every sides of the Tulsimancha are usually of Hindu gods and goddesses especially the images of Krishna and Radha. The Tulsimancha is erected on the ground and it gradually widens at the base. After filling this brick-built structure with earth, a Tulsi or Basil plant is planted. The Tulsi plant is considered to be very holy and pure to the diligent Hindus. Tulsi plant is worshiped by the women in the Hindu households for the well being of the family. Art --- Art is an integral part of West Bengal. It is an inseparable part of every household. The various forms of art whether it is dance, music, handicrafts, and painting have blended with the social and cultural milieu of the state. Rabindranath Tagore's contribution in enriching art of West Bengal is unparalleled. He has been a source of inspiration for the new aspiring musicians and dancers for over a century. In fact Rabindranath Tagore formed a new genre of vocal music named after him as 'Rabindra Sangeet'. It comprises songs written and composed by him. These songs were actually written by him in Bengali, which have been later translated into many other languages. Various art forms are even taught at Santiniketan, a school established by Rabindranath Tagore, which later attained the recognition of university and was called Viswabharati University. The art of ballet tradition was popularised in India by Udayashankar and his wife Amala Shankar. In the capital city of Kolkata they have trained many dancers in this art and performed with their troupe of dancers worldwide. In the field of fine arts, artists from Bengal are famous for their exceptional works. These renowned artists have given a new way to Indian art for e.g. Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Rabindranath Tagore, Jyotirindranath Tagore, Abanindranath Tagore, Jamini Roy, Ramkinkar Baij. In Bangla folk music, Baul tradition is very popular. Numerous other forms of folk music like Gombhira and Bhawaiya are common. Dance as a form of art is an inseparable part of Bengali culture. The classical dances like Bharatnatyam, Manipuri, Kathak, and folk styles like Chhau dance are learnt by artists. The folk dance of Chhau is performed with masks by male dancers. Tant ---- The Tant is the one of the finest form of handloom products that West Bengal has gifted us. Keeping in sync with the rich tradition of Bengal's art and craft, Tant and the Tant Sarees of Bengal have been the favourite with fashion designers, style freaks and users. In Bengal a Tant Saree clad motherly figure is a very common and lovable sight in every home. The most possible picture of a traditional Bengali woman will feature a white Tant Saree with red Anchal. These wonderful sarees are a must in Bengali Pujas and other festivities. It can be very easily perceived, the amount of popularity and importance Tant enjoy in Bengal and adjoining areas. The popularity of Tant owes much to its crisp muslin like finish and feather weight. The Tant Sarees are really comfortable to wear and ideal for daily use. The broad and silky thread works on the body of the saree is an excellent example of classic Bengali motifs. The colourful Tant fabrics are also used to make salwar suits, kurtas and shirts. The Aanchals or Pallus of the Tant Sarees are ornamented with supplementary thread works, which make the garments even more attractive. The Tant garments are very popular with modern day women, especially with the working ladies who can wear them for daily use and in parties also - with the same elan. Bone carvings ------------- The crafts peculiar to the state of West Bengal include bone carvings that have been practiced for years. This eastern state of India has always been the cultural center of India and its rich tradition of hand - crafted objects is just a part of it. West Bengal specialises in ivory carving and the craftsperson chisel out exquisite art objects from ivory. Artifacts in the brilliance of ivory white gain an aristocracy of its own and looks majestic. Ivory panels for beds, wardrobe, dressing unit, chairs, thrones, palanquins and similar objects have been coveted items by kings and queens. An ivory table or utensil made by the craftsmen of Bengal has always been craved for by these families. The Murshidabad district of West Bengal deserves special mention in this regard. Khagra and Jiagunj of this district has been the focus of attention for these elegant bone carvings of West Bengal. Both Hindu and Islamic motifs are used in Ivory Carving of West Bengal and are loved equally by all irrespective of religion. Hindu Gods and Goddesses are very common works of art. The figurines look marvelous in ivory for its inherent versatility. Trail of elephants and of horses done in a complete elephant tusk are widely loved in ivory as also the etched jewellery boxes. These jewellery boxes have been favourite especially with the royal ladies. Both the districts of Midnapur, especially the areas of Narayan Chauk, Tamluk and Jyot Ghanashyam, in West Bengal are known for combs made of horn of animals. The village folks are the major users of these horn combs of West Bengal as they believe it to be good for hair and scalp. In shimmering shades of black and grey these combs are interesting in their own way. Stone Carvings --------------- Stone Carvings have been widely practiced in the state of West Bengal, at one point of time. Slowly the art form is nearing its extinction owing to a variety of other materials capturing the market. But still the talented artisans of West Bengal continue to produce beautiful craft items that are functional yet aesthetic in their own way. The carvers do not have a formal training. They learn the basics from the previous generations and mingle their own sense in it. In the end, beauty prevails. Stone carvings in West Bengal are especially related with making stone utensils. Hand - operated lathes are used to carve out utensils of various shapes and sizes. The stone used for the purpose is Phyllite, a semi - soft grey coloured stone that is easy to carve. Simulpur in the West Medinipur district of West Bengal deserves special mention in this respect. Stone utensils need care to handle and in this respect many other materials are preferred by the common mass. The Bhaskars or Sutradhars of Burdwan, Patun and Dainhata are renowned for their exquisite stone carvings. Their object of carving is usually human figures and figurines on the walls of temples and houses. Free standing sculptures are also marvellous examples of their work. The use of red brick stones is common especially in the temples of West Bengal. Panels and plaques are chiseled out in stone to adorn the temples. Motifs like distinctly styled elephant, horses, Gods and Goddesses are common in the stone carvings of Bengal temples. Kantha ------ The Kantha works of Bengal is the exceptional embroidery art carried on by the women of Bengal. This form of folk embroidery is widely used in the state. The mothers and sisters of Bengali households have adopted Kantha to make various things, either for household or business purpose. The Kantha works act as the mirror of the society reflecting their religious and social beliefs. They also depict their dreams and desires through this wonderful form of handloom art. Kantha is based on simple running stitch but it can be used in creating masterpieces. The simplicity of the Kantha is the reason behind its immense popularity. The origin of Kantha is related to Kontha, which in Sanskrit means the rags. It is said that Buddha's disciples used to protect themselves from the cold by stitching rags together, making it thicker and warmer. Kantha is referred in the Sri Sri Chaitanya Charitamitra as a women's self expression. Types of Kantha based on its end products are:- Archilata kantha - small, mostly used as mirror covers. Durjani or Thalia - mostly used to make wallets. Baiton Kantha - used as book covers and other valuables. Sujani Kantha - decorative Kantha, which started in the eighteenth century is used mostly in blankets. Oaar Kantha - used to make decorative pillow covers. Rumal Kantha - used as handkerchiefs and plate covers. Whatever use the Kantha has, it is an integral part of the life of the people of Bengal. Wall Hangings ------------- The exquisitely decorated Wall Hangings of West Bengal represent the rich artistic skills and creative imagination of the craftsmen of the state. One of the most flourishing industries of West Bengal, the handicraft industry produces many decorative items. West Bengal is one of the leading jute producing states of India. The handicraft industries of the state produce many items of jute like beautifully designed carpets, attractive jute bags, colourful jute door mats, and many other decorative house hold goods. The wall hangings are one such products of the small-scale cottage and handicraft industry of West Bengal. The local artists of West Bengal weave the fine threads of jute to produce beautiful wall hangings. The natural golden colour of the jute threads imparts a yellowish and golden tinge to the Wall Hangings. To make them more attractive, the craftsmen design the Wall Hangings with colorful silk threads and beads. The wall hangings have an internationally acclaimed status and any tourist who visits the state makes it a point to purchase them. The wall hangings serve various purposes. While on one hand the wall hangings can be used as a decorative item that adds to the grace of the rooms, on the other hand they can be used as souvenirs, and gifted to near and dear ones as a token of love and appreciation. The handicraft industry forms the backbone of the economy of West Bengal. The state earns large chunks of revenue from the small-scale handicraft and cottage industries. The wall hangings of the handicraft industry reflect the rich cultural tradition of the past that has triggered down to the present era to strengthen the economic condition of West Bengal. Baluchari ---------- The silk tradition of Baluchari, which involves the use of human brocade figures that adorn the borders and pallu is noted for its intricate designs. Sari is the traditional wear of women in India. Many types of Sari's are popular in India categorised on the basis of their fabric, designs, embroidery etc. Some of the common varieties are Kanchivaram, Ikkat, Banarasi, Tanth, Pochampalli, Katki silk, Chanderi, Baluchari, Garwal silk etc. A type of silk weaving called Baluchari silk evolved where artisans could weave exquisite stories from Indian mythology in silk. This art has recently been revived, with the help of the central government and some French made Jacquard type looms. Baluchari is woven with two varieties of silk threads, one from Bangalore and the other from West Bengal. One of the silk types is set vertically and the other is set horizontally in the special looms. To make a single sari it takes a lot of effort for the artisans. Before fixing the threads on the loom the silk threads are washed in boiling water. On the next day, it is coloured by dipping in hot colours. Then the threads are rolled on the spinning wheels. After toiling for nearly five to six months we get those beautiful exquisite Baluchari saris. Daccai Jamdani --------------- The different varieties of handloom products of West Bengal have always reflected the richness of art and craft of the state. Among these exquisite handloom products, the Daccai or the Daccai Jamdani holds a distinct style of its own. The Daccai weaving pattern used in the cotton sarees has gained fame over the years. The word is derived from Ducca - the capital of Bangladesh. As per its name the handloom style was originally practiced in Dacca and other parts of undivided eastern Bengal but after the partition of Bengal, it is in practice in West Bengal too. The Daccai style is generally weaved on cotton sarees. These Daccai Sarees are usually in cotton but when it is treated with silk along with cotton, the glamorous Daccai Jamdani is created. The Daccai Jamdani saree is a favourite party wear among the women of both the Bengals and in other parts of India. The Bangladeshi Daccai Sarees are mostly in beige background but the Indian version is more liberal with colours. Jet Black Daccai Jamdani with Jari works in golden or silver is a prized possession for any woman and it is one of the elegant sarees of the country. The fine texture of the Daccai Jamdani sarees almost resembles the muslin with a dose of fine ornamental works. The exotic Daccai Sarees from the shores of Bengal is India's pride today. It is one of the important export products of the country. Tourism in West Bengal ---------------------- This state of East India attracts tourists from all over the country. The diversified physical features of the place make West Bengal a favourable tourist destination. Be it mountains or lush green forests, sea beaches or places of worship, the state has all. West Bengal hill stations are one of the major attractions of this state. From the breathtaking views of Darjeling to the quite retreats of Siliguri, from the stunning tea gardens to the woody forests, West Bengal hill stations have something for everyone. Some of these hill stations are also sites of historical and religious significance. But it is the tranquil and scenic beauty of the West Bengal's hill stations that attract the visitors from all over the world. Each hill station is different from the other and provides great opportunities for the visitors to lose themselves in the serene lap of nature. There are forests and valleys, picturesque settings and tranquil mountain walks. Some of West Bengal's hill stations are very old and date back to the ancient times of Indian history. They provide the perfect mountain experience to the visitors. To name a few places which are worth visiting in this state are: Ayodhya Hill Bandel Church Cooch Behar Palace Curzon Gate Digha Beach Gandhi Ghat Indian Botanical Garden I. S. K. C. O. N. (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) Temple at Mayapur Kantanagar Temple Raiganj Bird Sanctuary Santiniketan Sunderbans National Park On the eastern part of India, the state of West Bengal is the land of culture and rich tradition. Apart from the glorious past, today's West Bengal claims more fame as a bastion of leftist dominance. A travel to West Bengal takes you to the state, which has given birth to maximum number Nobel laureates of the country. This is the home to numerous poets, painters, filmmakers and scholars celebrated across the globe. Transportation -------------- West Bengal is well-connected through different modes of transport. By road, the state is covered by about 92,000 km area through national highways, state highways. These roads connect the cities as well as small towns and villages of the state. The state also has a well linked railway network. The capital city of West Bengal, Kolkata, is the headquarters for three different zones of the Indian railways in the state - Eastern Railway, South Eastern Railway and the Kolkata Metro. It is easy to reach the state via airways. Kolkata's Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport at Dum Dum is the biggest airport of the state. Bagdogra Airport and Kazi Nazrul Islam International Airport are few other airports in the state. Much government-owned organisations run their bus services in the state. Besides these organisations, many private companies also operate their bus service in the state. Education --------- The state government or the private organisations run schools in the state. The secondary schools are affiliated to West Bengal Board of Secondary Education, Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) and the National Institute of Open School (NIOS). There are many universities and affiliated colleges in the state. These universities offer courses in several fields such as arts, science, medical, technology, management etc. The state of West Bengal also has several well established medical institutes like the Calcutta Medical College, Calcutta National Medical College and the North Bengal Dental College. Instructions in law are meted out to students in many colleges like Hazra Law College, South Calcutta Law College, Surendranath Law College and Jogeshchandra Chaudhuri Law College. Along with these, there are institutes in engineering and film studies. ====================================================================================== List of Universities in West Bengal ====================================================================================== S.no. University Name City Address Email ID / Website ===== ==================== ========== =========================== 1 Aliah University Kolkata 21, Haji Md. Mohsin Square, Kolkata-7000 16 email@example.com www.aliah.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Nadia Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal firstname.lastname@example.org www.bckv.edu.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 University of Burdwan Bardhaman Rajbati, Bardhaman - 713 104, West Bengal, INDIA. www.buruniv.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 University of Calcutta Kolkata Senate House, 87 /1 College Street, Kolkata-700 073, West Bengal, India, www.caluniv.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Jadavpur University Kolkata 188, Raja S.C. Mallick Rd, Kolkata 700032. email@example.com www.jaduniv.edu.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur Kharagpur - 721302 www.iitkgp.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 University of Gour Banga Malda P.O-Mokdumpur, Dist-Malda, West Bengal Pin-732103 firstname.lastname@example.org www.ugb.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 University of Kalyani Kalyani Near Kalyani Ghoshpara Railway Station, Kalyani, West Bengal 741235 email@example.com www.klyuniv.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 University of North Bengal Darjeeling Raja Rammohanpur, Darjeeling, West Bengal 734013 firstname.lastname@example.org www.nbu.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 International Management Institute, Kolkata Kolkata 2/4 C, Judges Court Road, Alipore, Kolkata, West Bengal 700027 www.imi-k.edu.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 Netaji Subhas Open University Kolkata dd 26, Sector-1, Kolkata, West Bengal www.wbnsou.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 Presidency University Kolkata 86/1 College Street, Kolkata 700073 www.presiuniv.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 Rabindra Bharati University Kolkata 56A, B.T. Road, Kolkata - 700 050. email@example.com, rbu.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University Belur Math, Howrah PO Belur Math, Dist Howrah 711202 firstname.lastname@example.org www.rkmvu.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 Sidho Kanho Birsha University Purulia Purulia Sainik School, District : Purulia, WB PIN: 723 104 email@example.com skbu.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 Bengal Engineering & Science University Howrah PO: Botanic Garden, Dist: Howrah, West Bengal, India - 711103 www.becs.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences Kolkata 12, LB Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata - 700098, www.nujs.edu/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 West Bengal University of Health Sciences Kolkata DD Block, Sector-1, Salt Lake City, Kolkata, West Bengal 700064 firstname.lastname@example.org www.wbuhs.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences Kolkata 37 & 68 Kshudiram Bose Sarani, Kolkata - 700 037 www.wbuafscl.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 West Bengal University of Technology Kolkata BF 142, Sector 1, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal email@example.com www.wbut.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 West Bengal State University Barasat Berunanpukuria, P.O. Malikapur, North 24 Parganas, PIN 700126 firstname.lastname@example.org www.wbsubregistration.org/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Cooch Behar Pundibari, Cooch Behar email@example.com www.ubkv.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23 Vidyasagar University Midnapur Vidyasagar University Rd, Rangamati, Medinipur, West Bengal 721102 www.vidyasagar.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 Visva-Bharati University Santiniketan PO : Santiniketan, West Bengal, India Pin 731235 firstname.lastname@example.org www.visvabharati.ac.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 Kazi Nazrul University Asansol Old ADDA Office Building (Behind Asansol Girls' College), P.O. - Asansol-713304, Dist: - Burdwan, West Bengal email@example.com www.knuedu.in/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 Techno India University Kolkata 2nd Floor, EM-4, Sector-V, Salt Lake, Kolkata - 700091 (Near Swastha Bhawan/PWC, Beside Times of India Office) West Bengal, India firstname.lastname@example.org www.technoindiauniversity.ac.in/ ========================================================================================== Language -------- Bengali and English are the official languages of West Bengal. The National Language Hindi is also widely spoken in the state. The three subdivisions of the Darjeeling district have Nepali as their official language. Urdu, Oriya, Santali are some other languages spoken in the state. Hindi Language --------------- Hindi is one of the spoken languages of the state of West Bengal. The various communities that have settled in the capital city of Kolkata and the other cities interact in Hindi language. The national language Hindi is popular mode of communication among the non native masses of the state. Hindi is the most popular language of the country. The language is spoken in the state of West Bengal as well. The natives of the state mostly communicate in the language of Bengali. With the development of commercial centers in the state, different communities of the country were attracted to the state and settled in the cities. The capital city of the West Bengal, Kolkata is a metropolis which is the hub of settlements of different communities. The non native residents of the state of West Bengal speak in the Hindi language. Hindi is popularly used among the business classes who have settled in various parts of the state. Realising the importance of the language, Hindi has also been made a part of the academic curriculum and is taught in schools and colleges. The state has several schools with the medium of studies conducted in the language of Hindi. Bengali Language ----------------- The language prevalently spoken by the people of the state of West Bengal is Bengali, which is an Indo Aryan language derived from the alphabets of the Devanagari script. The Brahmi script also had an influence on the language. Bengali is commonly used in the state of West Bengal and in the country of Bangladesh. Different dialects of the Bengali language are used in other states such as Assam and Manipur. The language follows two styles of speaking. The sadhubhasha is the elegant form of the language and uses several words directly incorporated from the Sanskrit language. This is the traditional form of the language and is used as incantations in the ritualistic ceremonies. The style was earlier popular among the educated masses who developed the form of the language as a literary style. The use of this style is difficult and is not in use among the majority of masses. The colloquial form of the language appears in the form of the chalitbhasha. This form of the language is popular among the masses at large and developed from the speaking styles of the people of Kolkata. English Language ---------------- English is used as a language of communication among the people of the state of West Bengal. Apart from the prevalent use of the language of Bengali, the residents of the state also use the language of English and Hindi. English is prevalently used to conduct official business in the state. The city of Kolkata was earlier the seat of administration during the British rule of India. The mode of communication among the British residents of Kolkata was English. The language became popular among the educated natives of the state of West Bengal. The official work of most of the organisations of the state during the period and in the present age is conducted in the English language. The language has, since then, gained popularity among the majority of masses in the state. The language of English is a popular language among a majority of the people of the globe and has acquired the status of being the lingua franca. English has become the chief mode of communication in which the bulk of business of the world is conducted. The government of West Bengal has realised the importance of the knowledge of English and has thus incorporated the study of English as a compulsory part of the academic curriculum in the schools and colleges of all mediums. Several schools of the state have English as the medium of education. English is one of the commonly used languages in the state of West Bengal. The popularity of this language has not suffered even with the presence of the other languages like Bengali and Hindi. West Bengal Media ------------------ In the modern world, newspapers are among the most easy and common ways to propagate information. West Bengal has over five hundred newspapers published daily out of which over three hundred are in Bengali. The state owned television broadcaster is Doordarshan and the public radio station is All India Radio. Private FM stations are only available in Asansol, Kolkata and Siliguri. Newspapers of West Bengal generally publish current news of the state, nation and the world. The news published in these newspapers is about political, social, criminal, cultural, business, sports events. They also publish editorials, cartoons focusing on contemporary issues in a comic way and articles by eminent scholarly people. In the modern world newspapers are among the most easy and common ways to propagate information. West Bengal has over five hundred newspapers published daily out of which over three hundred are in Bengali. The state owned television broadcaster is Doordarshan and the public radio station is All India Radio. Private FM stations are only available in Asansol, Kolkata and Siliguri. Newspapers of West Bengal generally publish current news of the state, nation and the world. The news published in these newspapers is about political, social, criminal, cultural, business, sports events. They also publish editorials, cartoons focusing on contemporary issues in a comic way and articles by eminent scholarly people. Some of the major Bengali newspapers in West Bengal are: Aajkaal Abasar Anandabazar Patrika Bartaman Dainik Jugasankha Dainik Suprovat Ganashakti Ganashakti Patrika is a Bengali newspaper and enjoys the distinction of being the official mouthpiece of the West Bengal's unit of Indian Communist Party. The first edition of Ganashakti Patrika appeared in 1967 as a fortnightly newspaper. Before being transformed into a full-fledged daily newspaper, it was published as an evening daily.Ganashakti Patrika also has an online edition and the English edition of the newspaper is published weekly. The newspaper has a good circulation in the capital city of Kolkata and other districts of West Bengal. Saroj Mukherjee, an active freedom fighter and the state secretary of CPI (M)'s during the 1980's influenced the newspaper with his thoughts and converted Ganashakti into voice of Communism. After the demise of Mukherjee, Anil Biswas, has been carrying on the responsibility. Anil Biswas was the editor of the newspaper. The political thoughts, activities and achievements of the West Bengal's unit of Indian Communist Party are published in Ganashakti Patrika. Even though Ganashakti is an official mouthpiece of Communist Party of West Bengal, it covers all kinds of news and issues related to society, travel, literature, culture, science, and technology. The newspaper claims that it publishes one of the top science and technology articles among all the Bengali newspaper. Many writers and political thinkers share their views through Ganashakti Patrika. A unique characteristic of Ganashakti is that it is displayed everyday on roadside woodboards of Kolkata and even in the suburbs. It is an interesting way of propogating knowledge for those people who can't afford to buy a newspaper to read. Jago Bangla Jugantar Karmakshetra Prothom Alo Sangbad Pratidin Uttar Banga Sambad Some of the main English language newspapers in West Bengal are: Asian Age Bengal Post Calcutta Post Darjeeling Times Hindustan Times Kolkata Mirror The Hindu The Indian Express The Statesman -------------- The Statesman is the oldest English Newspaper of India. It was founded in the year 1875 in Kolkata. Till date it is one of the leading Newspapers of West Bengal. Besides Kolkata The Statesman is also published from Bhubneshwar, New Delhi and Siliguri. It has descended from the collaboration of two newspapers, The Englishman and The Friend of India. Both, The Englishman and The Friend of India were published from Kolkata. The Englishman was first published in the year 1811.The Statesman, Kolkata began with the name The Statesman and New Friend of India. Very soon the original name was shortened and the newspaper came to be known as The Statesman. After Independence the authority of this newspaper was transferred to the Indians. The Statesman House of Chowringhee Square in Kolkata functions as the headquarters of this Newspaper. While the Statesman House of Connaught Place in New Delhi is the national editorial office. It is also a member of the Asia News Network. The Statesman publishes regional, national and international news everyday. It also gives a wide coverage the world wide sports events. There are also many supplements published along with the Kolkata edition of The Statesman. The most noted among these is the Voices. Ever since its birth the Voices has been a favorite among the school goers. Another popular supplement The Statesman, Kolkata is the 8th DAY. It accompanies the main pages of this newspaper every Sunday. He you will get to read articles on a variety of subjects. An afternoon edition of The Statesman is also available. The Telegraph -------------- The Telegraph is one of the leading newspapers of Kolkata. It is owned by the Ananda Bazar Patrika Limited. It is an enterprise of the Ananda Publishers. It has been publishing news since the 7th of July, 1982. Presently, The Telegraph, Kolkata is the largest circulated English Newspaper in the eastern part of India. Apart from the Kolkata center The Telegraph is also published from many other places. In order to cater to the readers of the north east this newspaper is published from Guwahati. The Siliguri edition of The Telegraph is meant for the readers of North Bengal and Sikkim. Ranchi and Jamshedpur are the other two cities from where this News Daily is published. The Telegraph of Kolkata publishes national, international and regional news. Beside these there is a wonderful coverage given to world sports by this newspaper. To increase the variety of reading materials and provide the customers informations in every possible field they also publish many daily supplements. Along with the main newspaper you will get a copy of 'Know How' every Monday. This is a tabloid providing interesting information in regarding the field of science and technology. The 'Telegraph Jobs' is published every Tuesday. Here you will get informations on situations vacant and also other useful tips regarding the contemporary job openings. The special colorful tabloid for children, 'Telekids' accompanies the main edition every Wednesday. The other supplements are Career Graph, Weekend and Graphiti. The Telegraph is considered to be the fastest growing daily of post independence India. There is also an Internet edition of The Telegraph in order to reach more people. The Times of India ------------------ The Times of India one of the leading English language newspapers published from Kolkata. Apart of Kolkata it also published in many important cities of the country. It is considered to be the most widely circulated English Daily >in India. The Times of India was established on the 3rd of November in the year 1838. The newspaper was initially published under the title of The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce. The present name of this News Daily came into existence from the year 1861. The Times of India is published by the media group named Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. The other publications of this include the Maharashtra Times, Mumbai Mirror, The Economic Times and the Navabharat Times. Their headquarter is situated in New Delhi. Jaideep Bose is functioning as the Executive Editor from the year 2005. The of The Times of India can be traced back to the British owners of the organization. For a long time it served the British colonizers who resided in the western parts of India. Initially it was launched as a bi-weekly edition and was published on Wednesdays and Saturdays. By the year 1850 daily editions of the newspaper began to be published. Then it used to cover news from America, Europe as well as the Indian Subcontinent. Each edition of The Times of India were regularly transported to some of the European countries. Steamships were used for the purpose. Two of the most popular supplements of The Times of India are the Education Times and the Times Ascent. Some of the well-known financial dailies in West Bengal are: Business Line Business Standard Financial Express The Economic Times Some of the eminent Vernacular newspapers in West Bengal are in: Gujarati Hindi Nepali Oriya Punjabi Urdu Some of the 24-hour television Bengali news channels in West Bengal: 24 Ghanta ABP Ananda Channel 10 CTVN Plus Kolkata TV Mahuaa Khobor Ne Bangla News Time R Plus Tara Newz Cellular phone operators and Broadband internet in West Bengal: Aircel Airtel BSNL Idea Cellular MTS India Reliance Communications Tata Docomo Tata Indicom Uninor Vodafone Radio stations in West Bengal ---------------------------- After the invention of television, radio had become an outdated thing. But very recently it has become a rage with young generation. You can find youngsters hearing to radio even on the streets in their mobiles. AIR is one of the first radio stations of India. There are many AIR radio stations in West Bengal. Following are the AIR radio stations of West Bengal with their frequencies: All India Radio Asansol 100.3 MHz All India Radio Chinsurah 594 kHz, 1134 kHz All India Radio Kolkata 657 kHz, 1323 kHz, 97.0 MHz, 103.0 MHz, 1008 kHz, 4820 kHz, 7210 kHz, 95.0 MHz, 100.2 MHz, 102.4 MHz, 104.0 MHz, 107.0 MHz All India Radio Kurseong 102.3 MHz All India Radio Murshidabad 102.2 MHz All India Radio Siliguri 711 kHz Since Bengali is the chief regional language in West Bengal, the number of radio stations that broadcast in Bengali language are more. But this doesn't mean that there are no radio stations for non-bangla speaking people. Many AIR radio stations also broadcast in the national language Hindi, international language English and other languages. Many FM radio stations have been established recently in West Bengal. Some of the FM radio stations of Kolkata are Friends FM broadcasted at the frequency of 91.9 MHz, Big 92.7 FM at 92.7 MHz, Red FM at 93.5 MHz, Radio Mirchi at 98.3 MHz, Aamar 106.2 FM at 106.2 MHz. These FM radio stations mostly broadcast film songs and music. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Station Frequency ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Big 92.7 FM, Asansol 92.7 MHz Red FM, Asansol 93.5 MHz AIR Asansol 100.3 MHz AIR Balurghat 101.0 MHz AIR Chinsurah 594 kHz, 1134 kHz AIR Darjeeling 100.2 MHz AIR Kolkata 657 kHz, 1008 kHz, 1323 kHz, 4820 kHz, 7210 kHz, 95.0 MHz, 97.0 MHz, 100.2 MHz, 102.4 MHz, 103.0 MHz, 104.0 MHz, 107.0 MHz Radio SRFTI, Kolkata 90.4 MHz Radio JU, Kolkata 90.8 MHz Friends FM, Kolkata 91.9 MHz Big 92.7 FM, Kolkata 92.7 MHz Red FM, Kolkata 93.5 MHz Radio One, Kolkata 94.3 MHz Radio Mirchi, Kolkata 98.3 MHz Fever 104 FM, Kolkata 104.0 MHz Radio Today (Oye FM), Kolkata 104.8 MHz Gyan Vani, Kolkata 105.4 MHz Aamar 106.2 FM, Kolkata 106.2 MHz Power 107.8 FM, Kolkata 107.8 MHz AIR Kurseong 1440 kHz, 4895 kHz, 7230 kHz, 102.3 MHz AIR Murshidabad 102.2 MHz AIR Siliguri 711 kHz Nine 91.9 FM, Siliguri 91.9 MHz High 92.7 FM, Siliguri 92.7 MHz Red FM, Siliguri 93.5 MHz Radio Misty 94.3 FM, Siliguri 94.3 MHz ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Economy and Infrastructure of West Bengal ----------------------------------------- Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the state's income, and nearly three out of four persons in the state are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture. The state accounts for high percentage of the country's jute production. It is also a major producer of tea. Important crops of the state include potatoes, oilseeds, betelvine, tobacco, wheat, barley and maize. The state also occupies a leading position among principal rice growing states of India. The state has a significant mineral output, including dolomite, limestone, and china clay. It has steel plants, an automobile-manufacturing plant, and numerous chemical, machinery-building, and light-engineering industries. Here's a profile of the state's infrastructure: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Roads: Surfaces - 25984 Km, Un-surfaced - 32016 Km, National Highways - 1631 Km Railways: 3767 Km Eastern & South Eastern Railway Headquarters are in Calcutta. Telecommunications: Basic Telephone - Working Lines - 797800 Waiting list - 150200 Express Demand - 1.4 per 100 population VSNL has its International Gateway and Earthstation in and around Calcutta. Mobile Cellular Services (GSM) is provided by Modi - Telstra and Usha Martin Telecom Malaysia within Greater Calcutta. Mobile Services proposed in the rest of the State by Reliance/NYNEX. Public Radio Paging Services provided by four operators E-mail Services available from a host of operators. Airports: Domestic: Bagdogra, International: Calcutta Major Ports: Calcutta, Haldia ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Economy of West Bengal ---------------------- Comprising of various revenue-earning sectors, Economy of West Bengal is considered as one of the rapidly developing strata of the state. Agriculture and service sector being the prime ingredients, there are numerous other commercial zones that contribute towards the prosperity of the West Bengal Economy. Displaying a wide gamut of commercial sectors, the Economy of the state is assisted by different ministries, which are further controlled by the Government of West Bengal. The key sectors that form the very base of the state's Economy are: Fisheries, which is governed by Shri Kirnamay Nanda and works towards the improvement of the existing fishing zones of the state Agriculture, which is administered by Shri Naren Dey and attempts to enhance the productivity of fertile lands of West Bengal Real Estate which enacts rules and regulations regarding land lease, construction and rent activities within the premises of the state Industrialization which comes under the Industrial Reconstruction Department of West Bengal Government and focuses on various norms and initiatives related to the enhancement of commercial sectors in the state IT Sector, which is supervised by Dr. Debesh Das and strives to bring Hi-tech revolution in West Bengal Tourism, which under the apt guidance of Shri Manabendra Mukherjee, involves endeavors of improving the sightseeing prospects of West Bengal Power Sector, which is a significant wing of the Government of West Bengal and put its diligent efforts to cater to the ever-increasing electricity needs of the people There are several other areas too that gives the Economy of West Bengal a considerable boost. Some of these areas include: Infrastructure Finance Higher education Food processing Animal resources development Forest With the collective upgradation and improvement of all the above mentioned sectors, the Economy of West Bengal promises to build a strong and sustainable base for all-round development of the state. Agriculture ----------- nown as the leading economic sector of the state, Agriculture in West Bengal contributes considerably towards the country's annual crop production. Blessed with highly fertile lands and adequate irrigation facilities, Agriculture in West Bengal is characterized by high quality seeds and advanced farming techniques. As one of the important factors of economic growth, Agriculture receives ample assistance from the state government. The Ministry of Agriculture, under the guidance of Shri Naren Dey, formulates a diversified range of policies to improve the present yield. Several land reforms policies have also been implemented in the state to expand the farming opportunities. However, since there are only a few scopes to increase the number of farmlands in West Bengal, the Ministry of Agriculture emphasizes on further development of the existing crop areas. Fisheries -------- Functioning through around 264 Fish farms, the Department of Fisheries strives to develop the present condition of this economic sector in the state. Governed by Hon'ble minister Shri Kiranmay Nanda, Fisheries primarily deal with three types of Fish variety i.e. Indian major carp, Indian minor carp and exotic species. The wetlands of east Kolkata are the major zones where various Fishing activities are carried out effectively. Locally known as bheris, these Fishing zones are used for polyculture and waste water fisheries. Proper financial support of Government of West Bengal has encouraged the Fisheries Department of the state to apply various developmental schemes. As per a recent statistical data, a major share of Fish production comes from the state of West Bengal. In order to improve and exceed the upper limit of Fish production, the West Bengal Government in the last few years has brought several significant plans. Due to the successful implementation of these projects Shankarpur, Freserganj and Barge Jetty in the suburbs of the state have become some of the most prosperous Fishing corners. Industrialization ---------------- ndustrialization has gained a new momentum in West Bengal recently. Dominated by the service and agriculture sectors in the past, the state, in 2005, boasted of a total of around 386 Industrial projects worth Rs. 17968.41 crore. Shri Nirupam Sen is the Hon'ble state Minister of Industry and Commerce. Among the several upcoming Industries, Information Technology or IT sector has come in a big way in West Bengal. The first significant step of the state, towards full-fledged Industrialization, begun with the establishment of the Electronic Complex in the Salt Lake city of Kolkata. Haldia Petrochemicals was another major achievement, which literally gave an all-new dimension to the West Bengal Industrialization. Focusing on all-encompassing growth of the state, the West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation (WBIDC) has chalked out many economically viable policies and proposals for the suburb regions. Burdwan being on top of the priority list, Bankura has been facilitated with six steel Industries and one cement Industry all of which will come into being in the coming years. Purulia is another place on the outskirts of West Bengal and it will come up with five vital Industries in future. IT Sector --------- Setting a pioneering trend, the IT Sector of West Bengal has emerged as one of the leading players and is performing quite well in the economic arena of the state. Equipped with well-trained manpower, the Information Technology or IT industry demands a special place in India's commercial contours. The formation of the IT hub, popularly known in the state as Electronic Complex, represents the incredible advancement of hi-tech systems. Consisting of some of the biggest names of the global IT brands such as Wipro, TCS, IBM and NIIT, the IT Complex situated in Kolkata is pride of place for the state. Offering innumerable employment opportunities this IT industry of West Bengal strives to provide the best of high-end solutions not only to the Indian companies but also to the foreign organizations. The Information Technology enabled services or ITes sector is an extension of IT and aptly enhances the scope of its basic formulator. Power Sector ------------ Striving to provide optimum electricity resources to all the districts, Power Sector of West Bengal works towards meeting the ever-increasing demands of the state. Attracting investors from all corners of India, the Power industry of West Bengal aims to establish more units within its premises. West Bengal Power Development Corporation, established in the year of 1985, was a major indication of the state's intention to become a Power sufficient place of India. In 1998 with the set up of West Bengal Rural Energy Development Corporation, the state went a step further in its endeavor to electrify as many villages as possible. Also in 1999, West Bengal Regulatory Commission came into being which is at present looking into the affairs of electricity utility services. In the recent past, the Power Ministry of West Bengal has entered into joint venture with the Government of India to upgrade the present Power infrastructure of the state. This has in turn provided a major impetus to the growth prospects of West Bengal Power industry. Real Estate ----------- Generating huge sums of revenue for the state, Real Estate symbolizes one of the rapidly growing economic zones of West Bengal. Effective assistance from the Housing Ministry along with the emergence of Information Technology sector have added boost to the state's Real Estate industry. The increasing number of investors has also played a crucial role in this scenario. The Ministry of Housing, administered by Shri Gautam Deb, has formulated many plans that have gone a long way in creating a flourishing Real Estate market in West Bengal. Also, without the enthusiastic support of the private bodies, the Real Estate sector of the state would not have reached to the peak of success. Today, West Bengal has become a thriving ground for numerous Real Estate organizations. Offering best of the housing solutions at a competitive price, these companies, coming from all parts of the world, have made a permanent base in the state. Telecom Sector -------------- West Bengal has been ranked second by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) in terms of implementation of investments in the country. Within 2010, the state government has the vision of adding 15-20 % of India's IT revenues. Apart from the IT sector the telecom sector also contributes considerably to the economy of the state. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) is one of the major players in the telecom sector in West Bengal. On January 1882, telecom service was initiated in Kolkata, only six years after Graham Bell invented telephone. BSNL provides a wide array of services to its customers. It offers basic phone, mobile connections under the scheme of Excel and Cell one, internet connections, broadband, Wireless in Local Loop phone (WLL Phone). There are nearly 1.35 million subscribers of BSNL under Calcutta Telephones. The private companies in telecom sector are Hutch, Airtel, and Reliance. The eighteen districts of West Bengal namely Kolkata, Bankura, Birbhum, Burdwan, Nadia, Purulia, Midnapore, Darjeeling, Hoogly, Howrah, Jalpaiguri, Malda, Murshidabad, North 24 Parganas, Coochbehar, South 24 Parganas, North Dinajpur, and South Dinajpur are very well connected through BSNL and the private telecom companies. Tourism ------- Presenting a rich and vibrant heritage of West Bengal, Tourism industry offers an incredible palate of sightseeing options to the visitors. Administered by Hon'ble Minster Shri Manabendra Mukherjee, the Ministry of Tourism in the state endeavors to make the place one of the most exotic ones in India. Adorned with ancient glory and bright traditions, each and every Tourist corner of West Bengal speaks of a distinct tale. From north to south and east to west, the entire region of the state is brimming with pristine beauty. West Bengal Tourism ------------------ On the eastern part of India, the state of West Bengal is the land of culture and rich tradition. Apart from the glorious past, today's West Bengal claims more fame as a bastion of leftist dominance. A travel to West Bengal takes you to the state, which has given birth to maximum number Nobel laureates of the country. This is the home to numerous poets, painters, filmmakers and scholars celebrated across the globe. On the eastern part of India, the state of West Bengal is the land of culture and rich tradition. Apart from the glorious past, today's West Bengal claims more fame as a bastion of leftist dominance. A travel to West Bengal takes you to the state, which has given birth to maximum number Nobel laureates of the country. This is the home to numerous poets, painters, filmmakers and scholars celebrated across the globe. one of the most industrialized states. Its capital city, Kolkata is a major hub for the Information Technology. Real estate, financial consultancies, travel and tourism and hotel industry and contributes significantly to the state economy. It is well connected to other parts of the country. It also has an international airport which links it to the global world. Some of the important airports in West Bengal are Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, Bagdogra Airport, Kalaikunda Airport, Panagarh Airport, Malda Airport, Barrackpur Airport, Behala Airport, Balurghat Airport and Coochbehar Airport. The map shows some of these airports alongwith its two ports, Diamond Harbour and Haldia port. Kolkata' Metro started commercial operations in 1984. It was the first rail network in the country to have underground network. Dum Dum to New Garia Metro line is of 25 kilometers and has 23 stations. The metro network is currently under expansion and work is in progress in four lines namely Howrah Maidan to Salt Lake Sect V, BBD Bagh to Joka, Noapara to Barasat, and New Garia to NSCB Airport. Two more lines are approved and construction is yet to commence. These are Dum Dum to Dakshineswar - which is the extension of the existing line and a new line Baranagar to Barrackpore of West Bengal. =============================================================================== Metro Line Planned Planned Number distance (Kms) of Stations =========== =============== =============== Line 2: Howrah Maidan to Salt Lake Sector V 14.67 12 Line 3: BBD Bagh to Joka 16.72 13 Line 4: Noapara - Barasat 18 9 Line 6: New Garia - NSCB Airport 32 24 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Approved (construction to commence soon): ------------------------------------------ Line 1: Dum Dum - Dakshineswar (extension) Line 5: Baranagar - Barrackpore 14.5 11 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Best time to visit ------------------ Travel to West Bengal is mostly preferred during September and October, when the state celebrates Durga Puja with much enthusiasm. Dotted with many places of interest, West Bengal tourism offers the tourists with a wonderful opportunity to explore the rich cultural heritage and architectural splendor of the state. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Baluchari silk saris Clay models and terracotta items (horses) Tea Jute Products, Cane & Bamboo work and mats Items made of shola, conch-shell Leather work Dhokra and metal cast items Paintings ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ n all destinations in West Bengal there are a lot of opportunity for shopping. Government Emporia are galore in number whereas private shops literally dot all over the state. You can also opt for shopping from the roadside vendors who offer good variety and great bargain. Places to Visit in West Bengal -------------------------------- Nivedita Setu Race Course Victoria Memorial Bangiya Sahitya Parishad Shahid Minar Chitrakoot Art Gallery The Asiatic Society of Bengal Genesis Art Gallery Gallerie La Mere Arts acre CIMA Gallery Vidyasagar Setu Spandan Art Gallery Howrah Bridge Asutosh Museum of Indian Art Science City Fort William Kolkata Academy of Fine Arts Birla Planetarium How to Reach West Bengal ------------------------ West Bengal represents a panorama of majestic hills, dense jungle replete in wild lives, undulating green plains, beautiful breaches, historical monuments and a tremendously rich culture. Strategically located at the eastern part of Indian peninsula, the state has a very smooth communication network. It is often referred to as the gateway of the eastern India. How to Reach West Bengal is, therefore, not an issue. By Air ------ The state has an international airport in Kolkata, the state capital and another domestic airport at Bagdogra near Siliguri, in the northern Bengal. These two airports are served by nearly all public and private airlines and linked to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and so on. Most of the destinations in West Bengal are located at convenient distance from Kolkata and Bagdogra. By Rail ------ The state has a very good rail network too. Two railway stations namely: Howrah and Sealdah near Kolkata and New Jalpaiguri, close to Siliguri, are key railway stations in the state. There are numerous other railheads that are served by important trains from all over the country and link major destinations within the state. By Road ------- An extensive road network covers the entire state. A number of National Highways and State Highways crisscross the land. One can also approach the state from neighbouring states, name Bihar, Orissa and Jharkhand. Cross border road transportation is also operational with neighbouring countries like Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Shopping in West Bengal ---------------------- The ace artisans of the sate make exquisite items out of clay, conch, shoal. In some places of West Bengal, the craftsmen weave superb silk saris, which is a popular item for those who wish to do some shopping in West Bengal. West Bengal Handicrafts ------------------------ Fine arts also have a rich tradition in West Bengal. In fact the state has produced a number of celebrated painters. Painting is also a worth buying item in West Bengal. Last but not the important to mention is that Darjeeling in West Bengal produces the finest quality of tea in the world. So a packet or two of original Darjeeling tea must feature in your list for Shopping in West Bengal. Best time to visit ------------------ Travel to West Bengal is mostly preferred during September and October, when the state celebrates Durga Puja with much enthusiasm. Dotted with many places of interest, West Bengal tourism offers the tourists with a wonderful opportunity to explore the rich cultural heritage and architectural splendor of the state. Transport --------- Transport facilities in West Bengal are quite developed, contributing to the economy of the state. The different districts of West Bengal are very well connected by rail. The two railway stations of the capital city of Kolkata: Howrah and Sealdah are the major stations of the eastern region. The total length of the railway network in West Bengal is 3,825 km (2,377 mi). Kolkata occupies a central position in Indian railways, as it is the headquarters of Eastern Railway and South Eastern Railway, which are the two sections of the Indian Railways. The Northeast Frontier Railway connects the northern parts of West Bengal. The Kolkata metro is another means of transport within Kolkata and it is the first underground railway in India. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (NFR) connects the hill station, Darjeeling to other parts of the state. UNESCO has declared it a World Heritage Site. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport situated at Dum Dum is the only international airport in the state. Another major airport of the state is Bagdogra airport near Siliguri.
Districts in West Bengal.
North 24 Parganas.
South 24 Parganas.