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Our Country needs again your active participation. Welcome. Bharathiya Vajra Party is inviting you. Be as *National Leader, *your State *your District *your City *your Village *your Ward leader. Bharath Matha is Inviting you. We don't need the temporary solutions. We need now the planned root level solutions in our country for the health, wealth, strong and standard development. We don't need the cumulative problematic effects in our country and on our people. Let us all participate now. Welcome! Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a union territory of India, with Port Blair as its capital. It is located in The Indian Ocean, and has over 572 islands, out of which only 38 are permanently inhabited. It has 3 Districts Earlier British used them as an isolated prison for the fighters of Indian Independence, but now these 'Emerald Islands' are a famous tourist destination. It has various hotels to cater to the demands of tourists. Some of the islands in Andaman and Nicobar are hilly in places, covered with tropical jungle and with flat stretches of beaches. Adventure tourism like trekking, Island camping, snorkeling, SCUBA diving are the real attractions. The places of interest include Cellular Jail, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park, Water Sports Complex, Fisheries Museum, Chidiya Tapu, Mount Harriet and Samudrika Museum. It is also famous for its only active volcano, Barren Island. It also has many state of the art hotels to cater to its ever-booming tourism industry. Spectacular mix of nature's most prized delights; the Andaman & Nicobar Islands are a once in a lifetime holiday experience. ============================================== Andaman and Nicobar Islands State Information. ============================================== Date of Formation(Declared a Union Territory): Nov 1, 1956 Assembly constituency: 0 Parliamentary constituency: Andaman and Nicobar Islands Net State Domestic Product(2011): 76883 Official Website: www.andamans.gov.in Location : Latitude-6° to 14°North. Longitude-92° to 94°.(Within the Bay of Bengal 193 km away from Cape Negrais in Myanmar, 1255 km from Kolkata, 1190 km from Chennai. It is composed o: 572 Islands. Only 38 islands are inhabited by humans. Capital: Port Blair No. of Districts: 3 Date of formation: 1. Nov. 1956 Lt. Governor: Lt. General A. K. Singh Tourist attractions: Cellular Jail, Ross Island, Havelock Island, Marine Museum Festivals: Andaman and Nicobar Tourism Festival, ethnic tribal festivals Languages: Hindi, Nicobarese, Bengali, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu Size/area: 8,249 sq. km Rivers: Hooghly, Kalpong Forests & National Park: Little Nicobar WS, Landfall Island WS Population(Census 2011): 380,381 Males Population(2011): 202,871 Females Pop (2011): 177,710 Females per 1000 males: 878 Literacy Rate (2011): 77.65% Density: 46/Km2 State animal: Dugong (Sea Cow) State bird: Andaman Wood Pigeon State tree: Andaman Padauk Major crops: Paddy, coconuts, nuts, banana, mango Factoids: It is located in the Bay of Bengal. Tropical climate: Temperature-23°(min) and 31° (max).Humidity-70% - 90%,Tropical throughout the year. There is no extreme climate except rains & tropical storms in late summer often cause heavy damage People: Onge, Jarawa, Andamanese and Sentinelese of Negroid descent; Shompen and Nicobarese of Mongoloid descent. Religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and others. Highest Peak: Saddle Peak. Flora: Magroves, epiphytes, woody climbers, timbers, palms, & tropical fruit trees. Fauna: Different types of fishes and corals. Crops: Coconut, Areca nut, Paddy, etc. Fruits: Mango, Orange,Papaya, Banana, Sapota, Pineapple, etc. Best Time to Visit: October to May ------------------------------------------------------------ Archaeological evidences prove that the first settlements in Andaman and Nicobar Islands date back to the middle of the Paleolithic age. The Andamanese are said to be the first inhabitants of Andaman Islands. Till 1850, the Andamanese lived in complete isolation; it was after 1850 that they came in contact with the outside world. Nicobarese were the aborigines of the Nicobar Islands; they lived in the Nicobar group of islands with Shompens. In the 18th century after the Britishers came to India the island emerged in the global scenario. But, during the British period, they became infamous as the 'Kalapani', where people convicted of any offense against the British government were kept. The Britishers transformed the exotic island into a 'penal colony', where culprits charged with life sentences were imprisoned. For many years, Andaman and Nicobar Islands had been under the reputation of a 'penal colony'. But the picture has changed drastically in the recent years. Initially, going to the islands was a taboo, and reputed people abhorred from visiting this place. But today, Andaman and Nicobar Isalnds are among the most coveted destinations in Indian tourism. The presence of a range of exotic locations has worked wonders in developing the tourism here. Some of the locations that deserve special mention in this context are: Andaman Islands: ---------------- Long Island, Neil Island, Rangat, Diglipur, Mayabunder, Little Andaman Islands, etc. Nicobar Islands: ---------------- Katchal, Car Nicobar, Great Nicobar, etc. Port Blair: ----------- Gandhi Park, Mahatma Gandhi National Park, Chidiya Tapu, Sippighat Farm, Collinpur, Mini Zoo, Mount Harriet, Madhuban, etc. Andaman and Nicobar Islands - Facts: ==================================== The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, home to a number of aboriginal tribes, lie in the Bay of Bengal, approximately 1,220 km southeast to the coast of West Bengal and 1,190 km east of Chennai. The main islands in the Andamans are Land Fall Island, Middle Andaman, South Andaman, Port Blair and Little Andaman. Nicobar, lying to the south, comprises Car Nicobar, Great Nicobar, Chowra, Teresa, Nancowrie, Katchal and Little Nicobar. The two groups of islands, Andaman and Nicobar, are separated by a deep ten degree channel. 12 of the islands, particularly Car Nicobar in the north, are inhabited, while Great Nicobar, the largest and southernmost island in the group, is virtually unpopulated. The capital of this union territory is Port Blair, on the Andaman Islands. Andaman and Nicobar islands are popularly known as the Emerald Isles. The erstwhile 'Kala Pani' or the Cellular Jail, now a museum, is among the most popular tourist destinations in India. History: ======== History of Andaman and Nicobar Islands dates back to the settlement of the East India Company in the territory of the Islands. The history in Andaman and Nicobar Islands maintains that the East India Company established a penal colony where criminals convicted for crime against the Company were kept. The history at Andaman and Nicobar Islands suggests that Marco Polo was among the first travelers from the West to reach this conglomeration of Islands. Again, the Kanhoji Angre, a Maratha admiral, is said to have his base in Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the early 18th century. The sovereignty of Kanhoji Angre ended when he was defeated by the British and Portuguese naval forces. In 1789, the British established their colony in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. But, the island was abandoned the British in 1796; yet, the British resumed control over the island in the 19th century. During the 19th century as the Andaman and Nicobar Islands history maintains, the British used Andaman and Nicobar as a penal colony, which was named 'Kalapani' or the Cellular Jail. The history of Andaman and Nicobar Islands proves that criminals convicted of crime against the East India Company was sent to Andaman and Nicobar Islands, with a life sentence: the convicts were forced to live in exile in the Kalapani. But, with the end of the British rule, i. e. after the Indian Independence, the 'Kalapani' gave way to a conglomeration of beautiful islands. It was in 1947 that Andaman and Nicobar Islands formed a part of the India Union. Today, Andaman and Nicobar Islands is among the seven union territories of India. Economy: ======== The Andamans have immense potential but they have not been utilised till now. The development has been insignificant but the population has increased alarmingly. Luxurious rainforests make the Andamans a 'gold mine' of timber. Tropical fruits are found on the hilly parts of the islands in abundance. The potential for fishery here, offers opportunities for industrial development. Paddy is the main cash crop here, while coconut and areca nut are the main cash crops of the Nicobar islands. Field crops namely pulses, oilseeds and vegetables and spices like pepper, cloves, nutmeg and cinnamon are also cultivated. Rubber, red oil, palm and cashew are grown on a limited scale on these islands. The major industries in the region include PVC conduit pipes and fittings, paints and varnishes, fiber glass, soft drinks and beverages, and steel furniture. Regular passenger ship services viz. MV Harshavardhana, MV Akbar and MV Nicobar are plying between Port Blair and Chennai, Kolkata, Vizag . The Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands have immense collection of natural recourses. The fishing industry supports a major portion of the economy of Andaman and Nicobar islands. Besides agriculture is also a major revenue-earning source for the peasants of that island. The hilly and plain agricultural lands of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are important source of income for the rural people of those areas. Seasonal vegetables, oilseeds, pulses, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon are some special crops cultivated there. Even the economy at Andaman and Nicobar Islands to some extent, depends on the red oil, rubber, palm and cashew nut that are grown here marginally. Other major industries that are also a big contributor to the Andaman and Nicobar islands economy include its handicrafts industry, minerals and energy resources. Even tourism is a big industry for the people of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. This land is full of natural beauties and the exotic collection of flora and fauna, which attract tourists worldwide. The innumerable tourist spots of Andaman and Nicobar islands support the tourism industry of the place. The island abounds with lush green forests that are a storehouse of some rare variety of floras. As a result the timber industry have come up into the island. Woodcrafts are very beautiful that also plays a considerable role in the economy of Andaman and Nicobar islands. Economy in Andaman and Nicobar Islands depend wholly on all the above factors. Agriculture: ------------ Andaman and Nicobar Islands agriculture have come a long way in this important sector though the land available for this purpose is very limited and restricted within 6% of the total area of this place. Due to the need to increase the fertility of this land, intense measures have been taken to bring scientific revolution to increase the production capability. Andaman and Nicobar Islands are full of exotic natural varieties and thus it inspires the peasants of that land to devote themselves into agriculture.Agriculture crops in Andaman and Nicobar Islands include vegetables, which are cultivated during summer season when the climate is quite favorable for food productivity. The vegetable cultivation of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands includes vegetables like radish, lobia, brinjal, bhindi, poi, cucurbits, marsa, etc. which are mainly cultivated in Kharif season.Agriculture of Andaman and Nicobar Island also produces vegetables like knolkhol, tomato, capsicum, cauliflower etc which are mainly winter season vegetables. Andaman and Nicobar Islands agriculture has very recently included the hilly areas to promote plantation of different spices crops and fruits. The climatic condition of this island is favorable for the production of fruits. The hilly areas are best used for horticulture, with cultivation of crops like coconut and fruits like pineapple, guava, jackfruit, mango, citrus fruits and other special fruits specially found in this island.Agriculture at Andaman and Nicobar Islands also includes red oil palm, rubber, cashew nut cultivation. Andaman and Nicobar Islands agriculture is limited within 50000 hectares. Only 12000 hectares of land are flat, which is best suited for agriculture. During the kharif season paddy becomes the prime field crop. A minimum amount of oilseeds and pulses cultivation could be seen in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. To give a hike to the production power for the agriculture of Andaman and Nicobar Islands the farmers of these islands are allotted with 2 hectares of paddy and 2 hectares of hilly land. Banks: ------ The more a country or state economically grows up, the more it feels the need for upgrading its banking facilities. Very recently the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands have developed both commercially and economically. Therefore a lot of banks have set up their branches to provide the peasants and business personnels of those islands with efficient banking facilities. All the Andaman and Nicobar Islands banks provide facilities like money deposition and withdrawal along with their different terms and conditions. Cash credit facility, home and business loan options are also available to the natives of the islands by the various banks in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Short term payable loan, medium or long term loans provided by different banks in Andaman and Nicobar Islands have inspired the local people to engage themselves to put up several small industries there. These loans are repayable in monthly, quarterly and yearly installments. These banks at Andaman and Nicobar Islands have made the investors interested in different schemes offered by them. Financial assistance provided by these banks in Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a great help to the needy people. Security of money is a big factor behind the successful representation of several banks in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Following below is the list of the banks of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Union Bank, UCO Bank, Punjab National Bank, Allahabad Bank, Vijaya Bank, Bharath State Bank Canara Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, Indian Bank Andaman and Nicobar State Co-operative Bank. These banks provide financial security along with helping hands for the needy people. Wildlife: --------- The tranquil islands of Andaman and Nicobar are blessed with the magnanimous presence of verdant woods and exotic wildlife which will surely captivate you in a state of trance. The forestry and wildlife in Andaman and Nicobar islands constitutes a major attraction for the tourists hailing from all corners of the planet. Approximately 7.171 square kilometers of the terrain is conquered by the vast stretches luscious green forests and falls under the forestry and wildlife in Andaman and Nicobar islands. These forests receive a lot of rain as they positioned on the equatorial belt. The trees that thrive in this heavenly delectable locale include tropical evergreen, mangroves and damp deciduous. As a matter of fact, the regions that come under the forestry and wildlife of Andaman and Nicobar islands are bestowed with the presence of approximately 200 taxonomic groups of plants amongst which only a meager 44 species are gleaned. But a sum total of 29 species are chosen to be utilized in the manufacture of industrial products. Some of the most important species of plants which epitomizes the forestry and wildlife at Andaman and Nicobar islands are: Lal Bombeive, White Chuglam, Sea Mohwa, Pyinma, Badam, Nabbe Red Dhup, Didu or Semul, Didu Dhup, Bakota, Papita, Lambapathi, Chool, Satinwood, Thikpot, Marblewood. It was the year of1883 that saw the dawn of the Forest department. The forestry and wildlife in Andaman and Nicobar islands has other assets as well like wildlife that includes Wild Boar, Barking Deer, Spotted Deer, Sambhar, Feral Elephants and many more intriguing creatures. The chief avian creatures of the Andaman and Nicobar forestry and wildlife include Andaman hawk Owl, Andaman Scops Owl, Andaman Crake, Brown Coucal and many more. Handicrafts : ------------- Andaman and Nicobar Islands handicrafts industry is mainly dependent upon its shell crafts. Shells of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are one of the most beautiful and fascinating objects found there. They are some unique creatures of these islands which are the assets of these islands. The shell crafted items of Andaman and Nicobar Islands handicraft industry enjoy high demand worldwide. The abundance of small and big shells in the coastal areas have tempted the coastal people to indulge themselves in the practice of shell crafting. Handicrafts industry of Andaman and Nicobar Islands include sea shell handicrafts. Sea shells for their majestic look and colors please the human eyes. The people in general desire to decorate their homes with various shell crafted items which gives a beautiful look to the house. Thus Andaman and Nicobar Islands handicraft industry is a major economic recourse for the local people. They collect the sea shells and then clean them and process them. After processing they cut them in different desired shapes. Mainly shell crafting is done for making decorative items, ornaments, table lamps etc. The shell handicrafts industry in Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a big economy recourse for the peasants of this land. But due to the fear of sheer exploitation of these natural recourses the government has banned some of the export business related with this craft.Handicrafts industry at Andaman and Nicobar Islands also enjoys timber and wood work culture. Andaman and Nicobar Islands boasts of a wide collection of timber species among whom some belong to rare families. They cut the timbers in different sizes and thus prepare simple objects giving unique forms to them. A variety of furnitures and other figures are made of these woods. The local craftsmen produce decorative hand made beautiful furnitures which are worthy for interior decoration. Fishing Industry: ----------------- Fishing and pisiciculture has a big market industry in India. India by virtue of its water resources has seen a revolution in this fishing industry mainly after independence.Industry of fishing is a big earning method for the Indian Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. This industry of fishing in Andaman and Nicobar islands is a big support to the economy of that island. Andaman and Nicobar group constitutes 321 islands, which covers a total area of 8293 sq. km. Water recourse is a big way of earning for the people of this island and thus many people are engaged in different water related business over here. The island being surrounded by water provides a great boon to the fishing industry of Andaman and Nicobar islands. As such many other fishing industries have come up with their ventures in this island. Thousands of crocodiles of different species are seen in these islands. And the numerous species of sea fishes have mainly inspired the Industry of Fishing in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Fishes like mackerels, barracuda, mullets, tuna, sardines and flying fishes are found in abundance there. Other than these, seashells of different sizes and shapes are also found there. Shark fishing was also a prime focus of this industry.Fishing Industry at Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a major industry but very recently a ban has been put on the continuous killing of sea sharks. This ban has finally brought a control over the unnecessary killing of various rare species of fish. Tourism Industry: ----------------- A hefty bulk of the revenue earned by the Government of Andaman and Nicobar is through the tourism industry. As a matter of fact, the industry of tourism in Andaman and Nicobar islandshas boomed and prospered into a completely new and advanced level. The varied tourist spots in the tranquil islands of Andaman and Nicobar are so spectacular that people from all over the globe gather at least once to witness its charm and grandeur. There are an amazing variety of conducted tours that are being organized to give the visitors a local taste of the islands and visit the tourist spots. The most prominent are :- Conducted tours by Directorate of Tourism : These are operated from the venues like Andaman Teal House, Port Blair and many more. This constitutes an important wing of the industry of tourism at Andaman and Nicobar islands. They conduct tours to the delectable locales like Mahatma Gandhi National Park, Wandoor, Mount Harriet, Water Sports complex and Gandhi Park, Corbyn's Cove Beach, Jolly Buoy, Red Skin Chidiya Tapi and many more. The vehicle of choice are the bus and the boat. Directorate of Shipping Services : It is another essential appendage of the industry of tourism across Andaman and Nicobar islands and they conduct boat tours to Viper Island, Ross Island and Harbor Cruise. There are also a number of package tours that form an integral part of the industry of tourism of Andaman and Nicobar islands. They include the following :- Adventure Thrill which is a 6 day and 5 nights package tour and visits spots like Corbyn's Cove Beach, Chidiya Tapu and many more. Explore Andaman which is another package tour persisting for 5 nights and 6 days. It covers locales like the Viper island and many more. Others include Historical Adventure, Nature Lovers Trivia and many more. Livestock: ---------- Andaman and Nicobar Islands livestock is one of the mainstays of the economy of the union territory. The farming of livestock in Andaman and Nicobar Islands is done on the areas that have been cleared from the forest regions of the islands, which have dense vegetation growth of rain forest. Although the total percentage of lands that are used for livestock is small, yet in some areas of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, livestock thrives despite harsh conditions. Distribution of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Livestock: ------------------------------------------------------ Andaman and Nicobar Islands Livestock is not equally distributed over the populated islands of the entire range of islands that comprise the Union Territory of India. The GIS based analysis produced and published the Central Agricultural Research Institute. have isolated the following islands as having the maximum livestock at Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Baratang, Car Nicobar, Chawra, Great Nicobar, Havelock, Kamorta, Katchal, Kondul, Little Andaman Lon Island, Middle Andaman, North Andaman, South Andaman, Teressa, Livestock Pattern in Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands Livestock is almost exclusively comprised of indigenous varieties (desi), with very few improved varieties available. Cattle, buffalo, goat and pig form the crux of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Livestock. Buffalo is by far the most numerous of the species comprising livestock at Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Poultry also forms an important part of the livestock of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Livestock Intensification Index of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (LII): --------------------------------------------------------------------- The Livestock Intensification Index is prepared by the Central Agricultural Research Institute to quantify the improvement in the livestock facilities and infrastructure in the various regions of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Four islands were in the top quarter of marks in a scale of 0 - 1.0, keeping in mind the various factors from arable lands to the other important facilities. Nine ranged between 0.5 to 0.75, and nine more were rated between 0.25 and 0.5. as many as 15 islands were there in the lowest quarter. However, it should be remembered in this context that many islands in the whole of Andaman and Nicobar do not have a wide arable area, and some have to do for the others. Mineral Energy: --------------- Andaman and Nicobar Islands Minerals and energy are extremely important part of the economy of the state. Although the mineral wealth of Andaman and Nicobar is modest, yet the government of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is committed towards making the best of the available resources. As far as the energy of Andaman and Nicobar Islands go, the state is looking at the possibilities of optimizing non-conventional energy resources along with the conventional forms. Minerals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: ---------------------------------------- Andaman and Nicobar Islands minerals and energy resources feature the minerals found in the islands. Andaman and Nicobar islands are not altogether rich in mineral resources. However, the state is not completely deprived of mineral resources too, and has the potentials of realizing them. The main Andaman and Nicobar Islands mineral deposits islands are copper and chromite. The government has diversified its mining operations through a process of introducing privatization in the system, like other states of India. It has not only proved beneficial for the mining and minerals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, but has also been a steady revenue earner for the government. Energy in Andaman and Nicobar Islands: -------------------------------------- Energy in Andaman and Nicobar Islands is the other important aspect of Andaman and Nicobar minerals and energy.Andaman and Nicobar Islands energy resources are of extreme importance to the state's financial infrastructure. Although some thermal energy is produces, yet water energy is the mainstay of the energy in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The main source of Energy in the union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is in the form of Hydro-Electricity. The government of Andaman and Nicobar Islands have privatized its power sector. The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Ltd. Is in charge of protecting the energy resources of Andaman and Nicobar. However, the government of Andaman and Nicobar islands is committed towards broadening its energy base as well as to conserve its available energy resources. Natural Resources: ------------------ The varied natural resources in Andaman and Nicobar islands have metamorphosed the twin islands into one of the most recurrently visited spots in India. The blanket of forests that extends across the terrain of Andaman and Nicobar approximately covers 86% of its total land. The forests constitute such an integral wing of the natural resource of Andaman and Nicobar that it houses 96 Sanctuaries and 9 National Parks which is a spectacular feat in itself. The main objective that primed the construction of so many sanctuaries and natural parks was to preserve those species of animals which are hanging precariously on the verge of extinction. The sanctuaries covers a mammoth area that measures approximately 466.218 square kilometers whereas the national parks cover 1153.938 square kilometers. The primary sanctuaries that form a part of the natural resources of Andaman and Nicobar islands are Narcondum Hornbill Sanctuary that procures a suitable abode for the exotic species of birds known as hornbills, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park that houses an entire caboodle of aquatic creatures, Nicobar Pigeon Sanctuary, South Sentinel Island Sanctuary which houses humongous robber crabs and North Reef Sanctuary which is principally dedicated to the nurturing of a variety of water birds. The wild animals that wander about in the verdant forests are Crab Eating Macaque, Terrestrial Shrews, Squirrel, snakes, Dolphins, bats, crocodiles, rats and many more which add a lot of variety to the natural resources at Andaman and Nicobar islands. These animals attract majority of the tourists with their charm and constitute the back-bone of the natural resource across Andaman and Nicobar islands. Infrastructure: --------------- Infrastructure of Andaman and Nicobar Islands might not be state of art in comparison to other states and union territories but still it has got the required infrastructure to support the existing industries. The main elements of infrastructure of any place are its industries, transport, communication, etc. The main component of infrastructure at Andaman and Nicobar Islands is its transport system. In this regard, it can be said that the transport system of the islands group has improved a lot and is moving towards betterment. The Motor Transport Department of Andaman and Nicobar Islands have extended their services to ten other islands apart from Port Blair while the State Transport Services is playing 143 buses on 75 routes. Though the transport network in the southern islands were hit badly by the tsunami that came on 26th December 2004, some of them have been restored while some of them are in the process of re-storage because transport is the main mode by which all the island groups are connected. Another significant element of Andaman and Nicobar Islands infrastructure are the different industries that contribute to the economy of the Union territory. All total there are 1763 small scale village and handicrafts industries operating in the island group. Out of these only 2 are into exports. These are fish or prawn processing units. Then there is a public sector unit namely Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation which operates in various fields including Fisheries, Industrial financing and Tourism. Infrastructure around Andaman and Nicobar Islands also relies on agriculture. Out of the total land area (comprising all the islands) of 51694.35 hectares, 5891.01 hectares of land is used for plantations and 2177.70 hectares of land for paddy and field crops thereby making the total area of land under cultivation 8068.71 hectares. The main money making crops for the island groups are Areca nut and Coconut which are grown in the Nicobar Islands. Since Andaman and Nicobar Islands are one of the largest tourist spots in India, the need for development of infrastructure of Andaman and Nicobar Islands has risen due to the growing tourism. More means of transport that including airways, seaways and roadways need to be developed. Geography: ========== Geographically located at 11° 41' N and 92° 46' E, these islands are a part of the Bay of Bengal. Two groups of islands, the Andaman and the Nicobar islands lie towards the Southeastern part of the Indian mainland. The groups of islets, islands and rocks sprawl over a total area of 8,249 sq. km. The capital city of this union territory is Port Blair, which is even the largest city of the place. Climatic conditions of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: ================================================= Being surrounded by sea, the islands of Andaman and Nicobar experience a moderate temperature throughout the year. With a humidity of about 80%, sea breeze helps the temperature to range in between 23° C and 31° C. The inhabitants of the islands get wet monsoon in different phases in a year. Monsoon brought by the southwest wind sets in during mid-May and continues till early October. Then after a gap of about one and a half month, again monsoon from the northeast starts in the month of November and stretches till December. Andaman and Nicobar Islands climate is a warm tropical climate, with the presence of irregular rainfall during the south-west monsoon. Sea breezes are also common in the tropical climate of Andaman and Nicobar. The climate in Andaman and Nicobar Islands is characterized with a minimum of 23° C temperature; the maximum temperature in the Andaman and Nicobar climate is 31° C. Thus, it can be said that the climate of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is moderate: the temperature is neither too hot nor too cold in the Island. Another typical feature of Andaman and Nicobar Islands climate is humidity. Andaman and Nicobar Islands is located in the Bay of Bengal; therefore, it goes without mention that the humidity in Andaman and Nicobar is relatively higher. The relative humidity in Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 70 to 90% Moreover, there is no extreme in the climate at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, except the rains and storms. Andaman and Nicobar Islands experience monsoon season in two phases: May to mid September and November to mid December. From November to December, Andaman and Nicobar group of islands witnesses north-easterly gale; and from May to October, the climate experiences south-westerly gale: it is only between January to April that Andaman and Nicobar Islands experiences calm weather. Further, talking about the monsoon of Andaman and Nicobar, it can be said that the average annual rainfall of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 318 centimeters. Rough weather prevail during the monsoon season in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. During the monsoon season, the climate at Andaman and Nicobar ranges from 22.5° C to 29.9° C. Thus, it is evident that the climate of Andaman and Nicobar is a tropical type of climate with variations during the monsoon season. Languages: ========== The main language of these islands is Nicobarese. However, official languages like Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu and English are even being widely used here. Education: ========== Like other states in India, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands also has an education system which offers free and compulsory education to the children below the age of 14 years. The higher secondary education here is affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). Colleges are generally affiliated to the Pondicherry University and there are some polytechnics affiliated to New Delhi. The place lacks colleges and institutions where students can get professional degrees in the field of medicine, engineering and law. Steps are taken by the authorities to get such institutions here. Society and Culture: ==================== The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are characterised by two distinct native cultures. One is of the Negrito population in the Andamans and the other is of the Autochthones, i.e. the Mongoloid Nicobarese and Shompen. Both during pre and post British periods and even after Independence, these two cultures have maintained their distinct identities. The original native group in the Andamans is the Onges, who live in Little Andaman. Onges, like other Andamanese tribes, are of Negrito origin. They practice food-gathering, hunting, honey-collecting and fishing, and are the only tribe on the islands, who freely accept contact with the outside world. In the Nicobars, the only aboriginals are the Shompens, who are averse to any contact with the outside world. The Nicobarese, the largest group, seem to be of mixed Burmese, Malay, Mon and Shan origin. They are a friendly and cheerful lot, who do not accept money and prefer the barter system. Communing with the dead is one of the many intriguing rituals practiced in Nicobar. The special festive celebrations of particular groups include Durgapuja for the Bengalis, Panguni Uthiram for the Tamils, Pongal for the Telugus and Onam for the Malayalis. The local born of the Andamans, who are divided into Hindus, Muslims and Christians, celebrate the festivals of all the three religions. Some of their main festivals are Shivratri, Janmashtami, Holi, Diwali, Ramanavami, Eid, Christmas, Good Friday etc. All three religious groups among the locals participate in one another's festivals. The people of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, irrespective of the regions that they originally come from or the religion they practice or the language or dialect they speak have many common cultural traits. A remarkable feature of Andaman and Nicobar society is the amicable co-existence of the people belonging to the different religions. Communal violence is unheard of here. There is amicable participation of all in religious festivals and the incidence of inter-religious marriages is increasing. Andaman and Nicobar culture show a mix of the indigenous cultures of the Negroid and the Mongoloid settlers of the island, as well as a more mainstream culture brought down by the descendants of the early settlers in the island from the Indian mainland. The migrants also contributed to the culture of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The greatest feature of Andaman and Nicobar Islands culture is the peaceful coexistence of these two strains of cultural lives. Cultural Patters of the Indigenous Tribes of Andaman and Nicobar: ----------------------------------------------------------------- The most distinguishing aspect of Andaman and Nicobar culture are the culture of the indigenous people of the islands. Andaman and Nicobar islanders can be divided into two major groups. The inhabitants of the Andamans are of Negroid origin and migrated from Africa thousands of years ago, way back in the later Paleolithic age. The main ethnic groups are: Andamanese, Onge, Jarawa, Sentinalese.The inhabitants of Nicobar are equally old, if nor older. They are however of a Mongoloid origin. The main groups of Nicobar tribes are the Nicobari (Nicobarese) and Shompen. All these tribes have continued with their indigenous culture at Andaman and Nicobar islands, and still continue to do so. The relative isolation of these tribes have helped to preserve these streams of Andaman and Nicobar culture. The Colonial and Post - Colonial influences: -------------------------------------------- The Andaman and the Nicobar islands was a popular place as a penal deportation. The infamous Cellular Jail added to its notoriety. Many freedom fighters from all parts of India were either jailed or deported to Andaman. Their descendants formed a separate identity group distinct from the aborigines in Andaman and Nicobar. Their ranks were soon swelled with the migrants from Bangladesh, Burma and other neighboring countries in the years following the end of the colonial rule. They have largely added to the culture in Andaman and Nicobar islands. Clothing in Andaman and the Nicobar islands: -------------------------------------------- Every region of India displays its own culture along with their language, religion and clothing styles. According to the Indian culture, both the men and women are expected to dress up in a civilized manner. But surprisingly enough, there still exists an isolated culture in India where people hardly care for covering their body with any clothes. Whereas modern dressing styles and ultra modern attires are ruling the multiplex markets and shopping malls in the cities of India and other parts of the world, the peasants of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are still far away from the touch of modernity. There is no such specific attire in Andaman and Nicobar islands. Till date there are many people from Andaman and Nicobar Islands who do not wear any dress. This is mainly due to their detachment from the civilized world. The Sentinelese people still move naked in the islands. The semi civilized Shompens only use clothes below their waist line. It is only the people of the Car Nicobar Islands who have become much modernized. Thus they wear some modern clothes and has left wearing their traditional dresses of those made of coconut leaves. The Jarawas make beautiful items with shell and barks of tree to wear them as necklace, waist and arm bands. Clothing in Andaman and Nicobar islands have come up only recently. Newspapers: ----------- Andaman and Nicobar Islands news channels at present times means a lot for the people of that island as it keeps updating the people with not only the local news but also the news around the world. With the advent of printing press, small newspaper houses have come into existence who have started publishing newspapers in Andaman and Nicobar islands. Andaman publishes 27 magazines which comes in different languages like English, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, etc. Andaman Herald and The Daily Telegrams are the newspapers published in English and the one and only Hindi Paper is the A$N Dweep Samachar.Newspapers of Andaman and Nicobar Islands also has some other small printing presses who publishes some less popular monthlies, fortnightlies and weeklies. But major problems with these newspapers in Andaman and Nicobar Islands are that journalism has not yet got that much of popularity to inspire the journalists and other such organizations to come into this profession. Another thing is Andaman and Nicobar Newspapers themselves have failed to cater the local people. The Newspapers of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have to be more informative regarding the policies taken by the Government so that they can attract the local people in a large number. An important thing is that the people of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are mainly Tamil and English speaking; so more and more newspapers have to brought out in these languages in order to increase the percentage of readers. At present total 25 printing presses are there and some of them are having offset printing set ups. Other raw materials like spare parts of the machines, ink, paper are imported from Chennai and Kolkata. Tourism: ======== Isolated from the mainland of India, the place is a group of floating emerald islands and rocks. Andaman & Nicobar Islands are famous for housing exotic sea beaches bordered by coconut-palm trees and the transparent blue water, which is home to underwater corals and other marine life. The unpolluted air along with the mangrove-lined creeks and the rarest species of plant and animal life will make you fall in love with nature. What are Andaman & Nicobar Islands famous for ? =============================================== Isolated from the mainland of India, the place is a group of floating emerald islands and rocks. Andaman & Nicobar Islands are famous for housing exotic sea beaches bordered by coconut-palm trees and the transparent blue water, which is home to underwater corals and other marine life. The unpolluted air along with the mangrove-lined creeks and the rarest species of plant and animal life will make you fall in love with nature. Major tourist attractions of Andaman & Nicobar Islands: -------------------------------------------------------- The group of 572 islands of Andaman and Nicobar can be regarded as a naturalist's heaven for its clean environment and crystal clear water bodies. The different hilly areas covered by lush green rain forests and sun kissed sea beaches are some of the major tourist attractions of the place. These islands are even known for adventurous activities like scuba diving, trekking, snorkeling, camping and various other water sports. Some of the famous tourist places, which one need not miss during a trip to the Andaman and Nicobar islands of India: Baratang, Barren Island, Cellular Jail, Havelock Island, Corbyn's Cove Beach, Radhnagar Beach National Memorial Museum, Fisheries Museum, Ross Island, Chidiya Tapu, Mount Harriet, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park Gandhi Park, Neil Island, Katchal. Some of the famous tourist spots in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands include National Memorial, Marine Museum, Naval Marine Museum, Smrithika Museum, Haddo Zoological Garden, Corbyn's Cove, and other beaches, and Humphrey Gunj Memorial. Andaman Water Sports Complex at Port Blair, Chatam Saw Mill (largest in Asia), Chidiya Tapu, Marine Museum, the island of red Skin, and Havelock are the other attractions. Corbyn's Cove, Wandoor beach, Sippighat water sports complex, Cinque island, and Jolly Buoy Island are some adventurous spots on the island. A study of Andaman and Nicobar Islands suggest that Andaman and Nicobar Islands houses a number of tourist destinations that attracts tourists throughout the world. Some of such locations are: Islands: Cinque Island, Jolly Buoy, Red Skin Island, Havelock Island, Ross Island, Barren Island, etc. Beaches: Corbyn's Cove abd Chirya Tapu, Harminder Bay Beach, Ramnagar Beach, Radhanagar Beach, Karmatang Beach, etc. Museums: Fisheries Museum, National Memorial, Anthropological Museum, etc. Monument: Cellular Jail. Picnic Spots: Chidiya Tapu, Corbyn's Cove Tourism Complex, Mount Harriet, etc. Transport: ========== The islands of Andaman and Nicobar are well connected to other parts of the country as well as the foreign places by air and waterways. The islands have even got bus and other modes of road transport for travelling internally. Being islands, the place is not connected to the other parts of the country by railways though. The Veer Savarkar Airport of Port Blair connects the islands to the other parts of the country by airways. Waterways serve the Andaman and Nicobar islands in both ways, external as well as internal transport. Port Blair, the intermediate port serves as the main port of these islands. Apart from the buses run by the state transport and private transport companies, residents of these islands are very fond of private taxis and auto-rickshaws. They even use motorcycles and bicycles for an easy and fast travel. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Tourism: ==================================== The islands of Andaman and Nicobar are affectionately dowered with the designation of 'emerald islands' owing to their unparalleled charm and breath-taking flora and fauna. Thus, state tourism in Andaman and Nicobar islands have flourished and expanded its network. Indeed, the exotic locales, the sun-kissed beaches, the alluring picnic spots and the various other marvels have truly taken the state tourism to another level. The state tourism of the islands of Andaman and Nicobar Islands y virtue of the various tourist spots which include the gorgeous islands like Jolly Buoy, Havelock, Cinque, Chatham, Viper, Ross, Barren and Red Skin which are bestowed with mesmerizing features like primitive dungeons, an active volcano, a medieval saw mill, multicolor corals and many more. Then there are beaches bequeathed with vast stretches of pristine and golden sands that has the power to rejuvenate your soul and mind and free you from all kinds of vexations. The most prominent are Radhanagar, Karmatang, Ramnagar, Harminder Bay and Corbyn's Cove Tourism Complex. Next are the picnic spots like Chidiya Tapu, Mount Harriet and Corbyn's Cove Tourism Complex which cater delectable plots to unwind yourself and get experience the funnier and jollier facet of life. The museums and monuments have also contributed a great deal to the state tourism at Andaman and Nicobar islands. Renowned museums include Forest Museum, Samudrika of Naval Marine Museum, National Museum and Anthropological Museum. On the other hand, monuments like the Cellular Jail and gallows at the Viper Island attract a lot of tourists. Venues like Madhuban and the Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park in Port Blair and Car Nicobar and Katchal in Nicobar also constitute an important appendage of the state tourism across Andaman and Nicobar islands. The accommodation facilities are also quite outstanding as numerous star and deluxe hotels are found in these twin islands. There are many Government lodges and resorts that aim towards making your stay very memorable. The varieties of water sports are indeed fascinating and you will just love to try your hands at them. Best time to visit Andaman & Nicobar islands: ---------------------------------------------- The best time to visit Andaman and Nicobar islands is the period in between the months of December and April. Places to Visit in Andaman: --------------------------- Long Island, Cellular Jail, Anthropological Museum, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park Places to Visit in Nicobar: --------------------------- Indira Point, Car Nicobar, Katchal, Great Nicobar Island. How to Reach Andaman and Nicobar Islands: ----------------------------------------- How to reach Andaman and Nicobar Islands should not be a matter of concern to a tourist. The union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is situated in the ocean of Bay of Bengal towards the south-east of the mainland of India. This secluded union territory of India is linked to the rest of India by both sea and air thus facilitating travel to Andaman and Nicobar Islands. By Air: ------- To travel to the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, it is most convenient to avail the airport located at the capital city called Port Blair. From this place, one can easily travel to the important cities of mainland India like Chennai and Kolkata. Flights are operated regularly between Chennai, Kolkata and Port Blair. A few major airlines that operate such flights are Jet Airways, Indian Airlines and Air Deccan. By Ship: -------- The Andaman and Nicobar Islands stand in the midst of the Bay of Bengal. Therefore, one should not miss the fascinating experience of reaching Andaman and Nicobar Islands by ship. Passenger ships connect Kolkata, Chennai and Vishakhapatnam, which are major cities of mainland India with Port Blair. These ships are available on a regular basis and help one to make a tour to Andaman and Nicobar Islands. On an average, in a month, 3 or 4 ships are available from Chennai and Kolkata to travel to Port Blair. From Vishakhapatnam, one ship is available per month to travel to Port Blair. It takes around three days to reach Port Blair by sea. A ship generally halts for around 2 days at the seaport before leaving it to start a reverse journey, that is, from Port Blair to Kolkata, Chennai and Vishakhapatnam. Government and Politics: ======================== The government and politics of Andaman and Nicobar Islands operate in a way that is slightly different from the governance of most states and union territories of India. The first notable thing about the government and politics of the islands is the lack of a legislature. The lieutenant governor is himself the executive head in the government of Andaman and Nicobar. The executive wing runs under his supervision, under direct monitoring by the heads of the various departments. The state judiciary falls under the supervision of the Kolkata High Court. The lieutenant governor is the most important figure in the government and politics in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In the absence of a formal legislative council, the lieutenant governor looks after the entire legislative structure of the state. The various departments work under his supervision. The government departments of the state operate on both directorate and the secretariat levels and take care of the state executive. The presence of many central government organisations also helps in enhancing the administrative as well as governance profile of Andaman and Nicobar. Politics of Andaman and Nicobar: --------------------------------- Although there is no legislative council in the state, it does participate in the general elections. However, the government and politics of Andaman and Nicobar Islands does feature many political parties. The nominal presence of a state party and a couple of extremely regional parties characterise the politics of Andaman and Nicobar. However, it is the national level parties that really rule the roost in Andaman and Nicobar's political scene. There is only one parliamentary constituency in the state. The apex body of the judiciary of Andaman and Nicobar islands is a circuit bench of the Kolkata High Court that operates from Port Blair. There are the district courts that fall under the jurisdiction of the session judges who monitor the smooth functioning of the judiciary in Andaman and Nicobar islands. Together, these courts monitor a smooth functioning of the judiciary of Andaman and Nicobar islands. Major Andaman and Nicobar Islands Political Parties: ---------------------------------------------------- The major political parties in Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the ones with prominent national presence. Some of such major political parties are: Indian National Congress (INC), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM), Communist Party of India (Lenninist) (CPIML), LJNSP and SWD are some of the other major Andaman and Nicobar political parties. Andaman and Nicobar Constituency: --------------------------------- Andaman and Nicobar has only one parliamentary constituency, a unit with about two and half lakh electors. The votes are conducted in 329 polling stations. The polling percentage is moderate at a notch over 60 percent. Central Government Organisations: --------------------------------- Central government organisations in Andaman and Nicobar islands play a very important role in the overall governance of the state. With a very rudimentary infrastructure, the state needs the support of certain central government organisations to look after some of the key areas of the state's governance. The following is a list of Andaman and Nicobar central government organisations: Central Agricultural Research Institute, Andaman and Lakshadweep Harbor Works (ALHW), Chief Electoral Officer Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Andaman and Nicobar Telecom Circle The Works and the Functions of the Central Government Organisations in Andaman and Nicobar Islands: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Andaman and Lakshadweep Harbor Works (ALHW) is a central government organisations at Andaman and Nicobar islands. It is a part of the ministry of Shipping, Road transport and Highways of the government of India. Founded in 1965, it is committed towards the maintenance and development of the port facilities in the region. The Andaman and Nicobar Telecom circle not only provides communication to millions of people, but also provides broadband services to thousands of users. The Central Agricultural Research Institute is one of the key Andaman and Nicobar central government organisations. The (CARI), one of the most important central government organisations of Andaman and Nicobar islands is committed towards increasing the research facility in the state in the fields of farming and agriculture. A similar institute is the Krishi Vigyan Kendra, which looks after the agricultural possibilities in the state. The office of the chief electoral office supervises the electoral process in the single constituency of the state. Together the central government institutions go a long way in stabilising certain aspects of the state government in the fields of farming and education. Andaman and Nicobar Government Departments: ------------------------------------------- Andaman and Nicobar government departments are at the vary center of the government's executive structure. These government departments of islands work through the secretariats and the directorates under its supervision. The organisational structure typically moves downwards through the decisions taken by the officials at the topmost level. With the absence of a formal legislature and an official council of ministers, Andaman and Nicobar government departments work tirelessly to optimize the efficiency of the various departments. The government departments in Andaman and Nicobar islands are designed to cover all the important aspects of the life in the islands. The head of each department is at the helm of the operations of both the secretariats and the directorates of the respective departments. Andaman and Nicobar government departments are: ---------------------------------------------------------- Agricultural Department, Civil Supplies and Consumer Affairs Department, Information, Publicity and Tourism Department, Police Department Labor, Employment and Training Department, Public Works Department Functions of the Andaman and Nicobar Government Departments: ------------------------------------------------------------ The functions of the various government departments at Andaman and Nicobar islands cover the many important aspects of the state's administration. While the agriculture, environment and the labor departments look after optimizing the natural and the human resources of Andaman and Nicobar islands, the police and the public works departments are devoted towards the maintenance of the civil infrastructures. All these Andaman and Nicobar government departments work through the secretariat levels at the highest level; the ground level executive wings operate through the directorates of the individual departments. The tourism department of Andaman and Nicobar is gradually gaining in significance, with the great tourist possibilities of the picturesque islands of Andaman and Nicobar. This department is committed with the information and the publicity of the Union Territories as well. Executive: ---------- Executive of Andaman and Nicobar islands is comparatively simple and uncomplicated. In the absence of state legislature, they play an extremely important role in the governance of the Union Territory. Executive of Andaman and Nicobar Islands looks after the administration of the two districts of the area, Andaman and Nicobar. The Lieutenant Governor is the executive head of Andaman and Nicobar executive wing. He works through a series of departments with their corresponding secretaries and directorates to monitor the administration of the state. Departmental Heads, Secretaries and Directors: --------------------------------------------- The heads of the various departments guide the works of the various secretaries and directories into a proper governance of Andaman and Nicobar. The district governance and the officials involved in the district administration also play important roles in the overall picture of the governance of state executive. Judiciary: ---------- The apex body of the judiciary of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a circuit bench of the Kolkata High Court that operates from Port Blair. There are the district courts that fall under the jurisdiction of the session's judges who monitor the smooth functioning of the judiciary in Andaman and Nicobar islands. Together, these courts monitor a smooth functioning of the judiciary of Andaman and Nicobar islands. Circuit Bench of Andaman and Nicobar: ------------------------------------- Andaman and Nicobar being a Union Territory does not have a High Court of its own. Andaman and Nicobar Islands judiciary falls under the supervision of the Kolkata High Court. A circuit bench of the Kolkata High Court is operative in the state, at Port Blair. There are two chambers of the judges of the Kolkata High Court at Port Blair. The registrar of the circuit bench of Kolkata High Court is also vested with the responsibility to supervise the operation of the judiciary of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Political Parties: ------------------ Political parties in Andaman and Nicobar Islands feature almost exclusively national level parties. With only one parliamentary constituency, the presence of independent state parties and other registered parties among the Andaman and Nicobar political parties are minimal. However, there are a few independent candidates who competes the elections from this Union Territory of India. The solitary constituency is eagerly fought by almost all the major national parties, who almost invariably place their candidates for the single seat. Districts in Andaman and Nicobar islands. 1.)..* North and Middle Andaman. 2.)..* South Andaman. 3.)..* Nicobar.